Thursday, November 7, 2019

The use of Skype to facilitate Virtual Organisations Essays

The use of Skype to facilitate Virtual Organisations Essays The use of Skype to facilitate Virtual Organisations Essay The use of Skype to facilitate Virtual Organisations Essay Undergraduate Programme Individual Coursework Submission Feedback Form To#be#completed#by#the#student#- #complete#all#grey#areas#5#failure(to(fully(complete(this(section(or(giving(inaccurat e(information(may( result(in(coursework(being(refused(or(delayed. ( Moduledetails: Module:code: MS3102! Course ofStudy'(please tickone! ): BScAccountingandFinance BSc BankingandInternationalFinance BSclnvestmentandFinancialRiskManagement BSc RealEstateFinanceandlnvestment Studentdetails: 596! BScActuarialScience BScBusinessStudies BScManagement Other'(pleasespecify) Family! Name:! Sarkhel! First! Names:! Jade! Nina!! *your! Student! Registration! Number! (Reg! No)! is! printed! on! the! right! hand! side! of! your! Student! Identity! Card.! ! PLAGIARISMSTATEMENT:TOBESIGNEDBYALLSTUDENTS (courseworkwillnotbeprocessedifthisisnotsigned) l! certify! that! the! coursework! that! l! have! submitted! is! my! own! unaided! work,! and! that! l! have! read! and! complied! with! the! guidelines! on! plagiarism! as! set! out! in! the! student! software! and! that! my! work! may! therefore! be! stored! on! a! database! which! is! accessible! to! ther! users! of! the! same! software.!! l! certify! hat! the! word! count! declared! is! correct.!! ! Students! should! be! aware! that,! where! plagiarism! is! suspected,! a! formal! investigation! will! be! carried! out,! and! action! may! be! taken! under! the! Universitys! rules! on! Signature: Date: 31. 10. 2013 Coursework#must#be#submitted#by#20:OO#on#the#day#of#the#deadline. #Work#r eceived#after#that#time#will#not#be# accepted#for#marking. # ! To#be#completed#by#the#Course#Offce# Date! Received:! ! To#be#completed#by#the#Lecturer# Revised! Submission! Date:! Reason:! Youshouldpayparticularattentiontoanyfeedbacknoteddirectlyonyourwork. ! FinalMark: Authorised! by:! Please(contact(your(lecturer(to(discuss(his/ her(comments(and(obtain(further(feedback. (All(marks(are(provisional(until(approved(by(the(appropriate(Assessment(Board. ( Technology facilitating virtual organisations This report endeavors to study the application of Skype to facilitate a virtual organisation. This critical analysis will identify benefits and risks associated with the application of this technology and scenarios for its use in the immediate and slightly more distant future. Word count: 2013) )3! ENCOURAGE! KNOWLEDGE! BUILDING! VIRTUAL! INTERVIEWS! † 5 TRAINING! 6 24/7! CUSTOMER! CONCLUSION) BIBLIOGRAPHY). OF MI 980).!! The% exponential% growth% (App. % 1)% of% the% internet% over% recent% years% has% eroded% international% barriers,% given% access% to% a% plethora% of% information% at% our% fingertips% and% has% influenced% a% significant%shift%in %the%way%businesse s%work%today. %with%the%help%of%technological%tools, %we%have% %work%to%more%virtual%organisationsl . These% organisations% operate% in% a % dispersed% manner% with% intensive% use% of% information% technology, %opening%up%both%endless%unexplored%opportunities%and%threats. %with %offce%space%in% prime%locations%becoming%increasingly%more%expensive %and%individual%desk%space%costing%up%to% El 2,000%a%year2,%we%see % many%businesses%warmly%welcoming%the%use%of%virtual%organisations%to% help%drive%down%costs. %% To% successfully% gain% the% benefits% of% operating% as% a% virtual% entity,% frameworks% such% as% the% intelligent% exploiter% model% could% be% used% to% overcome% challenges. highlights% the% importantance% of% implementing% an% effective% system% in% order% to% utilize% information% systems% and%successfully%enhance%performance3%(app%2). %This%critical analysis%endeavors%to%find%value%in% the%use%of%the%web %2. O%t0015,%Skype,%as%an%effective%system%to%facilitate%a%virtua l %organisation. %lt% will%detail%applications%of%skype%to%support%virtual%work %and%the%risks%that%may%arise. %% Skype%is%the%current%leader%in%voice %over%lP%(VolP)%service%and%instant%messaging. %First%released%in% August %freemium4%service%fits% under% the% category% of% a% Web% 2. % tool,% which% is% a% technological% service% that% enables% users% to% interact,% personalize% and% share% information% over% the% Internet5. % Skype% is% classed% as% a% peer% to% peer% application% and% operates% over% a% ultitude% of% platforms% (across% Mac% and% PC)% % mobile% devices%such %as%tablets,%smartphones%and%laptops%allowing%onMtheMgo%accessibility. %% %A virtual organization or company is one whose members are geographically apart, usually operates primarily via electronic means, appearing to others to be a single, unified organization with a real physical location http://whatis. echtarget. com/ %Richard Nessen- Lecture on Virtual Organisations% 3 %Holtham, Clive (October 2009) The I ntelligent Exploiter, Cass Business School. Available At: 4% Freemium is a business model by which a proprietary product or service (typically a igital offering such as software, media, games or web services) is provided free of charge, but money (premium) is charged for advanced features, functionality, or virtual goods. %Antiroiko Savolainen, 2011 It was coined in 2004 by OReilly who claimed that the use of these tools are to make the internet a more collaborative place (BCS, 2009) The% ability% of% a% firm% to% culminate% relevant% knowledge 6 %and% transform% them% into% unique% capabilities% can% be% crucial% in% developing % nonMimitable% competitive% advantages. % a% virtual% organisation,% is % quiet% common% to% have% individuals% in% different% geographical% locations to% be% working% on% the% same% projects. Interactions% between% individuals% operating% remotely% become% more%challenging%thus%reducing %the%amount%of%knowledge%being%shared. %Skype%allows%up%to%25% partic ipants%to%Join%a%conversation%at%once7,%which%can%be%implemented %into%an%organisation%to% facilitate% knowledge% management 8 ,% virtual% brainstorms% and% group% discussions. % Borderless% collaboration%can%help%to %improve%innovation%through%generating%a%wider%variety%of%ideas%with% influence% from% leading% practices% from% different% geographical% locations. can% improve% consistency%throughout%work,%as%everyone%has%equal access%to%information%and%overall%improve% decision%making%due%to%a % reduction%in%the%loss%of%knowMhow%tacit9%knowledge. %Facilitating%group% discussions%also%increases%productivity%by%reducing%cases%of%reinventing interactions% would% have% significant% benefits,% the% difficulty% arises%when %trusting%relationships%are%not%fully%developed%and%thus%hinders%the %dissemination%of% tacit% knowledge. The% facilitation% and% management% of % knowledge% sharing% also% becomes% more% challenging% in% absence% of% physical% presence% as% a% physical% brainstorming% session% would% usually% ontain% a% mediator% that% actively% manages% the% interaction% to% either% encourage% our% prevent% interruptions% for% example% in% a% physical% scenario% individuals% would% raise% a% hand% before% interrupting. % Another% important% risk% is% exposing% confidential% material,% as% there% is% very% little% control%over%who%is%listening%in%via%the%25%possible%channels%of %communicators. Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a basis for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the mind of individuals. In organisations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organisational routines, processes, and practices. (Davenport Prusak, 2000) 7 %There is a magic number for brainstorming and that number is 8-10 people. If you get more than ten people, it becomes challenging for everyone to participate and its too easy for side conversations to get going. ]rsconsulting. net/ freearticles 26. html% 8 %Knowledge Management is the discipline of enabling individuals, teams and entire organisations to collectively and systematically create, share and apply knowledge, to etter achieve their objectives Ron Young. 9 %Goffn, K. Koners, U. (2011). Tacit Knowledge, Lessons Learnt, and New Product Development. J PROD INNOV MANAG, 28, 300-318. With tacit knowledge, people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. Effective transfer of tacit knowledge generally requires extensive personal contact, regular interaction and trust. This kind of knowledge can only be revealed through practice in a particular context and transmitted through social networks. To some extent it is captured when the knowledge holder Joins a network or a community of practice. 0 %250 companies using Skype, 80% said using it increased employee productivity. http://financialsocialmedia. com/theadvantages-of-skype-in-business- communications/% Physical%and%social%interaction%is%known%to%bind%an%organisation. %The %lack%of%these%interactions%in% virtual% organisations% tends% to% hinder% the% development% of% a% company% culture. % To% encourage% social %interaction%between%virtual%workers,%Skypes%instant%messaging%and%VoIP %can%be%used%for% immediate% support% during% projects% and% general% social% interactions. Encouraging% employees% to% upload% profile% pictures% nd% building% a% personal% profile% for% themselves% can% help% to% develop % a% more%humane%appearance%to%workers,%especially%when%primarily %interacting%on%a%virtual%level. %lt% can% help% to% foster% teamwork% and% a % sense% of% belonging% in% a% virtual% organisation. % The% risk% of% encouraging%employees%to%use%skype%as%a%social%media%tool%is%the %inability%to%control%the%extent%it% is%being%used%for%social%interaction %and%thus%distracting%employees%from%their%work. % Internet%accessibility%has%opened%up%a%global%pool%of%potential%employees %from%which%to%recruit% from. %The%opportunity%to%outsource%work%through virtual%organisations%has%reduced%the%cost%of% remuneration% and% provided% a% wider% pool% of% applicants% for% firms% to% filter% out% the% most% skilled% people% across% the% globe. % So% although% firms% are% no% longer% limited% to% applicants% within% a% comfortable% com muting% distance % from% an% office% base,% the% difficulty% arises% when% interviewing% international%applicants%for%a%virtual%offsite%role. To%overcome%this,%Skype %could%be%implemented% to%hold%virtual%interviews%via%video%VolP. %The %absence%of%travel%time%would%improve%flexibility%of% meeting%times%and would%also%reduce%the%physical%space%required%to%hold%interviews. %These%two% factors%would%significantly%reduce%the%cost%for%both%parties, %due%to%increased%freedom%to%connect% from%more%convenient%locations %and%the%ability%to%reallocate%meetingMroom%space. %The%benefit%of% using %video%calls%as%opposed%to%a%telephone%conversation%would%allow%the %interviewer%to%assess% important% contributors% such% as% body% language% and% presentation. From% the% applicants% perspective,%being%in%a%familiar %location%might%reduce%nerves%and%in%turn%improve%performance% during% the% interview. Skypes% built% in% recording% software% could% be% utilized% to% document% the% interview%as%referen ce%when%making%comparisons %between%applicants%or%to%allow%third%parties%to% asses% applicants% performance% for% a% more% balanced% final% decision. % A% drawback% of% %employees%experiencing%true% company% culture. Through% physically% entering% an% office% building,% they% would% experience% the% work% environment% and% have% the% opportunity% to% interact% with% potential% colleagues. % A% virtual% interview%could%also%result%in%interruptions%due%to %being%more%exposed%to%external%distractions. For%example%using%lnternet %in%a%cafe%could%result%in%disruptive%background%noise,%it%can%also%be% difficult%to%identify%whether%an%individual%requires%privacy%when%sitting%in %front%of%a%laptop%with% headphones%in. Connection%also%plays%a%big%part %in%determining%whether%the%process%works%well% or% not. Delays% can% occur,% calls% can% be% dropped,% and% poor% connectivity% may% result% in% broken% speech%and%noticeable%lag%in%signal%reaching%its%destination. %skype%does%not%offer%a%serv ice%level% agreement%(SLAb%warranting%that %service%will%be%available%and%quality%good,%therefore%call%and% onnection%quality%are%not%always%as%good%as%they%are%on%the%public %switched%telephone%network% (PSTN). %% Technological%advances%has%allowed%multinationals%to%converge%in%the%way %things%are%done%on%a% global% scale. Another% difficulty% experienced% in % virtual% organisations% is% the% ability% to% bring% all% employees%together %and%disseminate%the%same%standard%of%training%across%the%board. %skype %can% be% utilized% by% providing% prerecorded% training% sessions% to% off% site% employees% for% mobile% % anywhere%access. %For%a%more%localized %approach,%one%to%one%or%group%training%via%skype%video% calls% % creen% sharing% would% allow% a% firm% to% create% bespoke% and% highly% interactive% training% programs. The%interactive%aspect%encourages%live %feedback%on%sessions,%encourages%employees% to%be%more%participative%as %levels%of%intimidation%in%a%classroom%setting%are% reduced. %%The%ability% to%tailor%the%course%based%on%individuals%specific%requirements%also %becomes%more%achievable. % Additionally,% it% could% facilitate% training% seminars% with% external% industry% experts% that% may% not% usually%have %the%time%to%travel%away%from%work. The%live%aspect%of%the%sessions means%that% information%is%always%up%to%date%in%comparison%to %learning%via%literature,%and%again%the%built%in% recording% function% can% be% used% to% record% training% sessions% to% build% a% reference% library% with% anytime% access. % The% drawback% of% the% virtual% training;% leaves% the% speed% of% employee% development% down% to% their% own% motivations% to% progress% and% it% becomes% difficult% to% ensure% alertness% during% sessions% due% to% a% higher% level% of% distraction% in% comparison% to% being% in% a% classroom. sharing%confidential%tacit%%explicit%training % of% this% information% reaching% competitors. The% application% of% Skype% training% in% a% virtual% organisation% can% be% leveraged% as% a% competitive % weapon% and% an% employee% retention% tool% to% ensure% that% employees % are% being% offered% career% development,% growth% prospects%and%support %to%reach%personalized%goals%even%when%working%remotely. % % ln%virtual%organisations%newer%team%members%can%be%deprived%of%the %opportunity%to%learn%from% more% senior% workers% and% valuable% knowMhow% tacit% knowledge% can% be% lost% within% a% firm. % The% application%of%skype%calls%for%the%purpose%of%mentoring%could%mend%this %gap. Again%the%benefit%of% flexibility%and%virtual%faceMtoMface %communication%from%mentors%makes%it%easier%to%set%a%time%% date%to %agree%upon,%especially%with%executives%whose%time%may%be%in%high %demand. This%factor% could% encourage% more% frequent% encounters,% allow % relationships% to% develop% faster% and% shorten% power% distances% between% hierarchical% levels. % The% erosion% of% power% distance% can% benefit% both% levels,%as%experience%is%past %down%to%newer%members%and %the%most%up%to%date%knowledge%from% the% front% line% can% be% filtered % back% up% to% higher% levels. % The% challenge% of% implementing% virtual% entoring%is%the%temptation%for%either%party%to%multiMtask%instead%of %concentrating%on%the%task%at% hand. The% feature% of% having% email% access% and% social% media% literally% at% your% fingertips% can% be% highly %distracting. % The%emergence%of%social%media%%blogging%sites%has%empowered %consumers%and%has%supported% the%development%of%the%term %coMcreation. 1 1 %customers%and%producers%are%beginning%to%see%the% benefit%in%interacting%to%create%experiences%and%build%relationships%even %after%the%transaction%or% purchase% has% been% made. % A% successful% example% of% this% is% Apple% care,% which% allows% 2417% customer%support online. Skypes%voice%over%lP%services%could%be%utilized%to%provide %virtual%faceM toMface%interaction%and%support%with%customers. %The %onMtheMgo%access%via%its%mobile%application% would%allow%virtual %workers%to%take%calls%from%across%the%globe%in%a%preferred%location %without% having% to% operate% from% an% office% base. % % Exploiting% time% zones% % the% differences% in% public% and% religious%holidays%would%allow %firms%to%allocate%hours%to%different%regions%to%cover%24/7%support. % The % use% of% Skype% as% a% virtual% interaction% tool% could% help% to% create%

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