Monday, February 17, 2020

Virtual groups and how they effect group communication Research Paper

Virtual groups and how they effect group communication - Research Paper Example Instead they connect through communication technologies and computers, provide an unparalleled amount of flexibility (Powell, Piccoli & Ives, 2004) and are unified only by a shared function or rationale (Lurey & Raisinghani, 2000). This paper aims to review the literature and research that focuses on the characteristics of small virtual groups in an effort to determine how virtual group interaction affects performance and to make comparisons between performance of small virtual teams and more traditional co-located small teams. Small groups usually consist of three to fifteen members (Socha, 1997) with the ideal size being five to seven (Cragan & Wright, 1999) with every member having an influence on each other and are interdependent. In other words if something occurs to or influences one member it impacts on other group members; the behavior of one group member effects both the way other group members relate to each other (relational behavior) and how they finish the task or attain their goal (task behavior) (Bertcher, 1994). According to Myers & Anderson (2008) interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of a small group and at the end of the day will influence how the group achieves its goal or task which is the initial and most important reason the group is formed. Tasks can be additive, wherein the small group members work separately on one component of a task and when all components are completed they amalgamate their endeavors to produce one ultimate outcome, or they can be conjunctive, wherein the group works together to produce the final outcome (Steiner, 1972). In the case of additive tasks the small group is not interdependent until the end when they unite their work but with conjunctive tasks they are interdependent from start to finish. Apart from the task, interdependence and size, Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that small groups contain three further features of communication which are ‘norms, identity and talk’ (p.9). He furth er claimed that the norms of small group behavior are the rules or regulations pertaining to members of the group, and can be social, procedural or task based, and if not upheld by a group member sanctions may be imposed on that member. Norms therefore shape small group behavior and govern the way in which group members undertake their task, interact and create their identity - the physical and psychological limits that differentiate small groups and group members. Communication is the most important feature of small groups in terms of defining their identity and consists of four different types of talk as posited by Cragan & Wright (1999) that include role talk, problem-solving talk, encounter talk and consciousness-raising talk. Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that a small group that is able to balance all four talk types will be more effective and succeed in its task, whereas a small group that places too much emphasis on one type over another or does not employ any one type may alienate some members and not accomplish their task. To summarize the characteristics of small group communication there are three major qualities – size, interdependence and task, and three minor qualities – norms, talk and identity, that influence the way in which group members interact and communicate. Research shows that much has been suggested and purported in terms of virtual communication

Monday, February 3, 2020

Change Process Theories in Downer (EDI) Limited Research Paper

Change Process Theories in Downer (EDI) Limited - Research Paper Example Theories of change attempt to answer the question of how and why change occurs while theories of changing attempt to answer the question of how to generate change and guide it to a successful conclusion (Bennis, 1996). Porras and Robertson (1987, p.4) expanded this ideology to change process theory and implementation theory. Describing change process theory is simply explaining the dynamics of change. There are multiple variables that are involved in the accomplishment of planned change. The two scholars (Porras & Robertson) described implementation theory as "theory that focuses on activities change agents must undertake in effecting organizational change" (p. 4). They include strategy procedure and technique theories as examples of implementation approaches. Academic writing tends to focus more on change process theory but practitioners are focusing so much on implementation theory. Integrating the two theories has been given very minimal focus. Theory of change is very important for the strategic purpose of an organization. It will be therefore important for organizations to understand change theory for the purpose of implementing some key strategies. Van de Ven and Poole (1995) identified four basic types of change theories. They considered them as life cycle, evolution, dialectic, and teleology framework. There are motors that distinguish these types. Van de Ven and Poole suggested that most change theories can be understood within one motor or in a combination of motors.