Monday, June 22, 2020

Diagnostic Tests for Panel Regressions in Stata

Diagnostic Tests for Panel Regressions in Stata Overview When performing a panel regression analysis in Stata, additional diagnostic tests are run to detect potential problems with residuals and model specification. In order to rely on the estimated coefficients and consider them accurate representations of true parameters, it is important that the assumptions of linear regressions formulated in the Gauss-Markov theorem should be met. Most of the assumptions relate to the characteristics of the regression residuals. The latter should be independent, without serial correlation and homoscedastic. The latter means the residuals should have equal variance. Diagnostics Tests Unlike traditional OLS regressions, panel regression analysis in Stata does not come with a good choice of diagnostic tests such as the Breusch-Pagan test for panel regressions. Additional user written modules have to be downloaded to conduct heteroscedasticity tests (e.g. httest2, httest3, etc.). Some researchers prefer to ignore these tests. Heteroscedasticity is a problem often found in cross-sectional regressions but in panel regressions both cross-sections and time-series are used. Other researchers download use-written modules and test for this problem. Yet others estimate panel regressions with clustered standard errors. This option is available in Stata. This would help researchers to eliminate heteroscedasticity if it exists. Serial Correlation Similar to the heteroscedasticity test, serial correlation in panel regressions is also tested by downloading user-written modules in Stata. The default functions of Stata do not provide such options for diagnostic testing. A well-known user-written programme that can be run in Stata to detect serial correlation in panel regressions is xtserial. Serial correlation is often found in time-series and rarely observed in cross-sectional data. In panel regressions, serial correlation could be caused by seasonal effects and non-stationarity of the data inputs. Stationarity can be tested by running panel data unit root tests in Stata. If potential endogeneity issues are detected in the relationship between dependent and independent variable, an instrumental variable (IV) regression should be run instead of standard panel regressions. Final Note Finally, the Hausman specification test for choosing the appropriate type of effects, either random effects (RE) or fixed effects (FE) should be conducted in Stata. The output of the FE specification is recorded first. Next, the output of the RE model is recorded. After that, the Hausman test is conducted. The null hypothesis of the test is that RE model produces consistent coefficients and therefore it should be preferred since it is more efficient than the FE specification. If the p-value of the test is higher than the significance level, this hypothesis is accepted. In the opposite case, the FE model is chosen instead. The latter is less efficient but always consistent.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Police Corruption - 1032 Words

In Edwin J. Deltarres book Character and Cops he explores three hypotheses for police corruption in the United States. Some are somewhat historical, but they are still relevant to the problem of corruption today. The first hypothesis is called the society at-large theory by former Chicago Police Superintendent O. W. Wilson. Wilson was superintendent of the Chicago Police Department during the early nineteen sixties. The second hypothesis is called the structural theory. The third is called the rotten apple theory. I will provide a brief analysis of the three hypotheses in this essay and examine which one(s) is valid today. The society at-large hypothesis theory, asserts that the police, in this case the nineteen†¦show more content†¦Once they were hired, they were trained by inexperienced officers who often had less than a year on the force themselves. Once they were so called trained and on the street the new officers were not adequately supervised. These conditions lead t o a young, unqualified, under supervised force. Another factor in the failed force expansion was a disinterested senior police force that operated nearly independent to the new recruits. Many of the new officers ended up involved in criminal actions. Shortly after the department was double in size, 75 percent of criminal complaints levied against department officers originated from the new group of officers. Ten of the substandard group were charge and pled guilty to conspiracy to commit murder or drug trafficking charges. Two more were convicted of racketeering, cocaine possession or drug trafficking charges. To sum up, the Rotten-Apple theory can be attributed to poor recruiting, poor training combined with poor supervision which led to young corrupt force. While the Rotten-Apple theory can explain corruption in one department I dont believe it is a universal fit for police corruption in general. The Society At-Large theory may have been more relevant to prior generations of of ficers who may have been innocently conditioned to the freebies that they partook in, but in the modern era police officers are well versed and trained inShow MoreRelatedThe Corruption Of Police Corruption1484 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerning police officers, police corruption has become a major topic. Police officers seem to be making more questionable and unethical decisions according to the media. With these questionable actions, the idea that police officers are corrupt has been a steadily growing opinion. I will be focusing this literature review on the history of police corruption, mostly in major cities/countries; the nature of police corruption; the ethics involved in law enforcement; causes for police corruption and finallyRead MorePolice Corruption968 Words   |  4 Pageselection law violations; (13) corruption of public officials; (14) copyright violations; (15) computer crimes; (16) environmental crimes; and (17) receiving stolen property This assignment requires us to write a paper on a form of white-collar crime that we feel is the must dangerous form and why. I feel the most dangerous form of white-collar crime is police corruption, which is also defined as public corruption. Public or police corruption is defined as; Public corruption involves a breach of publicRead MorePolice Corruption969 Words   |  4 PagesPolice Corruption Second Essay for AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are justRead MorePolice corruption770 Words   |  4 Pagesdefinition of Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial gain, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is taking bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities. Another example is police officers misusing the police code of conductRead MorePolice Corruption3338 Words   |  14 PagesAnalysis of Police Corruption Police corruption is a complex phenomenon, which does not readily submit to simple analysis. It is a problem that has and will continue to affect us all, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Since its beginnings, may aspects of policing have changed; however, one aspect that has remained relatively unchanged is the existence of corruption. An examination of a local newspaper or any police-related publication on any given day will have an articleRead MorePolice Corruption9501 Words   |  39 PagesPolice Corruption: A Perspective View Into the Definition, Cause, Harm Randy Botelho BSLS Capstone, LS498-01 – Unit 9 Professor Odim December 17, 2011 Thesis Statement Corruption in law enforcement is not victimless and creates a negative perception of the United States legal system. Introduction There are few professions in the United States that are entrusted with protecting society’s safety and system of laws that have been established throughout the course of AmericanRead MorePolice Corruption2291 Words   |  10 Pagesand discretion in police work produces great potential for abuse. Police corruption has been a problem in American society since the early days of policing. An ancient natural tendency of human beings is to attempt to placate or win over those in positions of authority over them. This tendency is complicated in today’s materialistic society by greed and by the personal and financial benefit to be derived from evading law. The temptations toward illegality offered to police range from freeRead MorePolice Corruption in Russia1430 Words   |  6 PagesPolice corruption is defined as when police, in exercising or failing to exercise their authority act with primary intention of furthering private or departmental / division advantage. Police corruption is a big problem all around the world especially in Russia. The Russian citizens have always been on alert when it comes to the police because of the bad laws, failure of knowing there right as citizens, and sticking up for there themselves. Russia is 133rd country out of 176 in the corruption perceptionRead MorePolice Corruption2879 Words   |  12 PagesStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy corruption is defined as the abuse of power by a public official for private gain. Police corruption is the abuse of power by a police officer for their own personal gain. Police officers become corrupt mainly for monetary gain because most feel that police officers do not make enough money and they want to make more. Police corruption can be costly to society and it can even violate the rights of society. Police corruption can show favoritism to some and unfairnessRead More Police Corruption in America2871 Words   |  12 Pages Police Corruption in America The missions statement of police agencies usually highlight with pride the maintenance, promotion, and protection of peace, order, safety, and justified law enforcement in communities and the entire nation. Police officers are agents meant to bust crimes and get the bad guys. The police agency that the public use to lean on as the legitimate authority figure to come to the rescue however has created conflicting public perception. The misconduct of some police

Monday, May 18, 2020

Teaching At An Uncommon School - 1091 Words

Why are you interested in teaching at an Uncommon school and how have you demonstrated a commitment to urban education in the past? * Upon review of your website, I was delighted to see the success you have had in preparing students to attend college. I was also impressed with the progress you’ve made in closing the achievement gap. I wish to help you to continue to achieve amazing results and see no better way to do so than through employment with you. My commitment to urban education is evident though my educational decisions (pursued a B.A. in Mathematics and M.S.Ed in secondary education) and experience working as a math teacher at La Granja School, a math tutor at Roberts Wesleyan College and as a student teacher at La Salle School. Please describe your most challenging academic or professional experience and your response to that experience. * My most challenging professional experience was serving as a math teacher at La Granja (a rural school) in Hernandarias, Paraguay. When offered the position by Jim Luster, I was quite excited but under-confident. I had good reason to be too†¦ I was lacking education and had no formal training in instructional practices. However, math was my favorite subject and I had done very well in it. I also was strongly encouraged by my father, so I accepted the position—and I’m glad I did. I taught a group of students at various grade levels to prepare them for their secondary-level standardized tests. The particularlyShow MoreRelated Jane Eyre and Education in Nineteenth-century England Essay1565 Words   |  7 PagesCharlottes education at a school for daughters of the clergy, which she and her sisters Maria, Elizabeth and Emily left for in 1824. Jane went on to attend Miss Woolers school at Roehead from 1831 to 1832, and returned to teach there for three years in 1935, just as Jane became a teacher at Lowood. Both Charlotte and Jane became governesses. The Lowood School is an accurate representation of a Charity School in the 1820s . The bad health conditions follow the conditions of the school the Brontes wentRead MoreCommon Problems Met by Highschool Teachers in Teaching Students5527 Words   |  23 PagesCommon Problems Met by Teachers in Teaching High School Students A Research Paper Presented to The English Department Saint Louis University Laboratory High School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement in English IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher would like to thank and recognize all the persons who had helped in making this research possible and successful through their assistance, contributions, suggestions, and the like. First, my utmost gratitude to my English teacher for her guidanceRead MoreOf The United States1527 Words   |  7 PagesHonduras was under Spain’s control, education was associated with the Roman Catholic Church. The students who attended school in Honduras typically came from higher social classes. In the late 19th century Honduras was not associated with the Roman Catholic Church and became non denominational in their school systems. Catholic schools still existed, but were not present in public schools. The Sectorial Plan of Education was from 1994-1997, which was created to form a new Honduran type. They were focusedRead More Home-Schooling Essay882 Words   |  4 PagesHome-Schooling Whether or not to home-school your children is a controversial issue for thousands of parents every year. Do you want to let your children go out on their own or keep them safe at home where you can monitor their development? Many parents choose to home-school their children and there are plenty of arguments for and against this decision. When it all comes down to it the decision will be based on the socio-economic status of the family, as to whether they can affordRead MoreBook Review : Reading, Writing Religion II Essay959 Words   |  4 PagesReligion II: Teaching the Bible in Texas Public School (Updated Edition)† is Professor Mark A. Chancey, who is in the department of Religious Study in Dedman College of Humanities and Sciences at Southern Methodist University. In Dr. Mark A. Chancey’s preface, he has showed there is a phenomenon that Texas public schools tend to have a resurgence of interest in teaching Bible courses, Dr. Mark A. Chancey claims t here are some upcoming challenged on teaching the Bible in Texas public schools, such asRead MoreNathan Hale898 Words   |  4 PagesRev. Joseph Huntington, to prepare him for ministry in the Puritan church. At age 14 Hale and his brother Enoch, who was 16 at the time, entered Yale College (now Yale University) which was founded by ministers in 1701. During this time it was not uncommon for boys of this age to enter college. Yale was strict but did not revolve around studies all the time, Hale and his brother played sports. They also joined a literary and debating society called Linonia during their sophomore, which was foundedRead MoreBureau Valley s School Board882 Words   |  4 PagesBureau Valley’s school board is comprised of seven members. Each member represents a section of the district. These board members are very prominent figures in our communities; they have much of the communities support. Although popularity, may not be what is best for the students. Looking at the Bureau Valley school board mandates, they are ultimately only required to do 4 hours of training and attend a few meetings when elected (Bureau Valley 2013, 120). Unfortunately, it is 2016 and the boardRead MoreI Am A Prospective Secondary English Teacher1389 Words   |  6 PagesI am a prospective Secondary English teacher; therefore, this career equity report will be focusing on high school teachers. Before researching, I would like to write down what I already know about teachers. Compared to many other professions, the average salary is low and the number of women in the occupation is high. However, I am planning to teacher English in Japan after graduating from college; therefore, I will try to incorporate something about Japan’s English teachers as well. I would likeRead MoreOn-Line Teaching vs Traditional Teaching1302 Words   |  6 PagesTraditional Teaching vs Online Teaching Nowadays, education becomes one of the important things in human life. Most of the individual in the earth is aware to obtain the education. Besides that, every country always concern on developing the quality of the education to improve the human resources. If the quality of human resources of a country is good, indeed, the quality of that country will be good too. As the matter of fact, we cannot deny that the improvement of technology really influenceRead MoreThe Top Down Pressurers : External Imperatives799 Words   |  4 PagesCuban et al. (2001), however, found that teachers do not always have enough time to blend technologies into their teaching routine as easily as their pupils expect. In spite of the training, some teachers face certain low response/adaptability to changes. Hence, the top-down pressurers [external imperatives] must provide consistent support and guidance, sufficient time to get familiarized with the tools and positive rewards. These strategies allow finding opportunities into the digital age to make

Monday, May 11, 2020

Japan Economy - 2204 Words

I. Introduction Japans exports rate last month at the fastest annual rate in more than two years. The weaker yen also boosted the energy heavy import bill, although the rose 10 per cent from a year earlier, economists said the net effect of the yens retreat remained positive, because higher export revenues translate into higher exporter earnings and consequently more investment and workers bonuses. Japan’s stock market is heavy on exporting, The Prime Minister Abes government also hopes that the export windfall will shore up general business and consumer confidence. This is way to aim to pull Japan out of its liquidity trap and end nearly two decades of economic stagnation and deflation. This essay will discuss about background and†¦show more content†¦III. Objectives and Effects of Weaker Yen The Prime Minister Abe tried to make lower currency of Yen with two strategies. First strategy is ‘Printing Money’ and second strategy is ‘Buying Yen from other countries’. Both of strategies increase supply of JPY. [pic] Weaker Yen sounds like loss of Japan. Actually, it brings a lot of benefits to Japan. There are many effects from weaker Yen. 3.1 Growth of Export Companies Japan’s fiscal policy is demand-pull for international consumers and Cost-Push for domestic consumers. DPJ (Democratic Party of Japan) thinks that cost-push inflation will increase the cost of goods and services however, having demand-pull is more important. It means growing demand will pull the economy into stability (J. Metcalfe, May 2013). Lower value Yen is same as income for household. It means an international consumer is able to buy Japanese products in lower cost. [pic] In Figure 3.1, previous currency of Yen was Y0 and after weaker Y1, it turned as income for international consumers. Thus, aggregate demand for Japanese products. Increased exporting will activate economy of Japan and there will be Inflationary gap between Y0 and Y1. It is enough to stimulate to recover Japanese economy. The Minister Abe thought weaker Yen will bring increase of export and demand for domestic products and services and it is true. The exporting rate of JapaneseShow MoreRelatedMonetary Policy Adopted On Bubble Economy Period Of Japanese Japan1331 Words   |  6 PagesThe topic of this dissertation is to discuss the monetary policy adopted in bubble economy period of Japanese. As Japanese economics is a specific example around the world. The Japanese government adopted many effective ways to revitalize the economy with the result that its economy rose abruptly after the World war II. However, because Japan entered a liquidity trap around 1990s, and experienced a  "Lost Decade† (Hiyashi and Prescott, 2002), the government experienced many economic problems suchRead MoreEssay about Economy of Japan after tsunami1750 Words   |  7 Pagesearthquake followed by a tsunami hit Japan, the people were devastated and everyone was scrambling for their safety. The earthquake was one of the strongest on record and this caused an overwhelming tsunami that destroyed most of the nation. These events not only tore down Japan, but this natural disaster is going to greatly affect the rest of the world and the global economy. Before these events, the global economy was stable and now after these events the global economy is going to see a change for theRead MoreReligion and Economy in Medieval Europe and Japan1305 Words   |  6 PagesReligion and Economy in Medieval Europe and Japan Social Hierarchy after Urbanization Religion did not have as much of an impact on daily life and the overall development of Japan as it did Europe. For instance the maximu m of the wars were fought for wealth or power, not religion, but what it did do was influence certain features. The people in Japan stuck to their original Shinto religion when Buddhism was involuntary forced on them, but soon after they discovered Zen Buddhism; a practice that wasRead MoreJapan And Korea Economic Impact On Global Economy3169 Words   |  13 PagesINTRODUCTION Japan and Korea are two of the strongest economies of Northeast Asia and have been very important players in global economy since the start of globalization era. These two economies have major impact on global economy. Both the economies have experienced various external and internal challenges. Therefore, it is important that we look at how these economies have been performing historically, more specifically since 1980s, so that we could get an idea about who might be a more significantRead MoreJapan s World s Third Largest Economy875 Words   |  4 PagesJapan is a vital economic power not only in Asia, but the world as well. It is currently the world’s third largest economy, previously in second place, behind America and China respectively (GlobalEdge). Like many other countries within the Pacific, Japan is a part of APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation). This is a forum that â€Å"works towards a higher standard of living†¦through sustainable economic growth.â⠂¬ (APEC, GlobalEdge). Despite the fact of how comfortable/well-off Japan seems, they are currentlyRead MoreThe Rise of Western Culture and Economy in Japan After World War Ii1581 Words   |  7 PagesThe Rise of Western Culture and Economy in Japan after World War II According to some scholars, a societys culture determines its economic destiny. Before 1860, Japan had been isolated for over two centuries, and it was not until the aftermath of World War II when Japan was forced to ration food to extreme measures (Hiesinger 39), the Japanese peoples fear of become a Western sub-colony coupled with â€Å"their flexible attitude towards cultural variance (Sparke 10),† ushered them into economic andRead MoreU.s. Japan s World s Most Successful Democracies And Largest Economies885 Words   |  4 PagesJapan is one of the world’s most successful democracies and largest economies. The U.S and Japanese alliance is one of the cornerstones of modern society. Which has led to more fundamental and regional stability and prosperity for both countries. The alliance is based on shared vital interests and values. Both countries support preservation and promotion of political and economic freedoms as well as the support for of human rights. This pa per is focused on the comparison between U.S and Japan. TheRead MoreJapan Economy Analysis2491 Words   |  10 PagesCUHK International Summer School 2009 MGT 3580 Global Enterprise Management - Individual Country Analysis Assignment – Contents Page 1. Introduction – Japan in a Glance 3 2. Japan’s Current Economic Performance 3 1. GDP /Capital (PPP) and GDP growth Rate 3 2. Inflation Rate Read MoreThe Bubble Economy. The Direct Cause Of The Japanese Banking834 Words   |  4 PagesThe Bubble Economy The direct cause of the Japanese banking crisis was the collapse of the asset price bubble during the late 1980s to the early 1990s. During 1980s, sustained economic growth and low inflation rate were the main characteristics of macroeconomic environment in Japan. This condition caused the upward growth expectations of asset prices, uncontrolled credit expansion and financial deregulation. At the same period, the United States has a substantial increase in the current accountRead MoreEssay about Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)1175 Words   |  5 PagesFDI. Among those developed countries there is the case of Japan that is different; Japanese attitude towards FDI has always been, in fact, very cautious. One one hand, Japanese outward foreign investment and exports have played a fundamental role in the postwar period of economic rise; on the other hand, the accesses to the domestic market by foreign investors, the so called Inward FDI, has been very limited. (Paprzycki, Fukao, 2008). Japan is a highly industrialised country, it has a large-sized

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

King Abdul Aziz University Hospital Essay - 1557 Words

King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH) was founded by King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz in 1976. Since then, KAUH has offered the best medical services to patients free of charge by well-trained experts to serve the educational side as well as encourage and support scientific researches related to medical services and attract well-trained experts to train doctors and students in college of medicine and other colleges in the university as well as relevant governmental bodies in some of the hospital departments according to the available potentials (http://medicine.ksu.edu.sa). KAUH offers medical services in certain specialties. Therefore, it has been divided to many departments. One of the departments is Total Quality Management (TQM) department. TQM department is responsible of providing a systematic mechanism for the facility’s individuals, departments and professions to function collaboratively in their efforts toward performance improvement. It also concerns on offering educati on and training for the staff to meet the general requirements of the organization that related to quality. Additionally, TQM department seeks to integrate all organizational functions by distributing roles and responsibilities along various lines of authorities and processes (Shaikh, 2009). Bolman and Deal (2008), perceives that the organization as the families, machines, theatres and jungles. They also have devised the theories about restructuring organizations; such as, symbolic concerns, politicalShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Need for Proper Equipment and Skilled Staff in Hospitals550 Words   |  3 Pagesvarious things that I learnt was that an excellent health service depends on all departments in a hospital. In any serious hospital, there is need for proper equipment and qualified skilled staff. With this you will be assured that the patients will be diagnosed accurately and managed properly. However quality medical system does not only depend on the consultants. The work ing staff in the various hospital departments has their share of responsibility as well. Upon deep reflection I have observed a trueRead MoreSaudi Arabia’s Military: the Social Aspects of the Kingdom’s Armed Forces6871 Words   |  28 Pagescountries, the post-modern movement of the Saudi military is gaining strength. A Brief History of the Saudi Military The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 after Abd al-Aziz reconquered the Arabian Peninsula from the Ottoman Empire for the House of Saud. In the mid-Nineteenth Century, Abd al-Aziz slowly began taking control over the various tribes on the peninsula and seizing major cities that slowly came under the auspices of the House of Saud, first with Mecca, Medina, and theRead MoreThe Importance Of The Health Care System Essay2253 Words   |  10 Pageswhich implies that the life of the people was very simple and traditional. People got healthcare by traditional practices and medicines. In the first quarter of 20th century, particularly in the 1929, King Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud issued a decree establishing a Health Department. At that time, hospitals and clinics were established in urban and major cities, such as Taif, Jeddah, Medina and Makka, and the health department takes a responsibility to manage it. The Saudi government continued to develop theRead MoreComparing Health Care System And Saudi Arabia Essay2075 Words   |  9 PagesCompare Health Care System in USA and Saudi Arabia Ghada Alamoudi, alamo1ga@cmich.edu BIS 625 Research in Information Systems College of Business Administration, Department of Business Information Systems Central Michigan University Mt. 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For example, King Abdullah had shown authoritarian leadership style in facing the internal terrorist attacks , which is an effective leadership style in emergencies and when quick and assertive decisions need to be taken. However, he has shown a transformative leadership style in the areas of economy and education. His vision for his country was described as the most constructive engagement so far. Now in Saudi Arabia there are many hospitals, schools, universities, and economic cities,Read MoreTop 40 Richest Families in Pakistan8594 Words   |  35 Pageswho know a bit more about the Hashwanis are of their strength in real estate business too. Hashwanis are involved in trading of cotton grain and steel and till the nationalization of cotton export in 1974, they were widely being dubbed as the Cotton Kings of Pakistan. Today, this group has excelled in export of rice, wheat, cotton and barley. It owns textile units, besides having invested billions in mines, minerals. hotels, insurance, batteries, tobacco, residential properties, construction, engineeringRead MoreMalcolm X : An American Muslim Minister And Human Rights Activist6464 Words   |  26 Pagesaccused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Malcolm X was an orphan in his early life. His father was killed when he was six and his mother was sent to a mental hospital when he was thirteen, leading to him living in several foster homes. In 1946, when Malcolm was 20 years old, he went to prison for larceny and breaking and entering. While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam, and after hisRead MorePublic Bank Leadership7523 Words   |  31 PagesBank of Cambodia in appreciation of his excellent achievement and significant contribution to the banking industry in Cambodia. In recognition of his contributions to society and the economy, he was conferred the Doctor of Laws (Honorary) from University of Malaya in 1989. He had served in various capacities in public service bodies in Malaysia; he was a member of the Malaysian Business Council from 1991 to 1993; a member of the National Trust Fund from 1988 to 2001; a founder member of the AdvisoryRead MoreDubais Political and Economic Development: Essay38738 Words   |  155 PagesArabia Islamist opposition is so strong that the government regularly suffers from armed terror attacks. For more information see Michael Herb, All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999) 173175; Mohammed Almezel, Bahrain Court Postpones Trial of Islamists, GuZfNews (December 7,2004); Kuwait Detains 32 Suspects Lirrked to Gun-Battles, Khaleej Times (March 10, 2005); Wlaled Al-Awadh, Most Wanted Terrorists

Geography and history of canada Free Essays

Relationship between the Geography of Canada and Its History Veronica Guerrero FarJat CDNS 101 Royal Roads University Ms. Michelle Hardy November 20, 2013 What is the relationship between Canada’s geography and its history? According to M. Hardy, (personal communication, March 27, 2012) my course material (2013) establishes that Canada is a North American country with 10 provinces and 3 territories; worldwide appointed as the 2nd largest country in the world Canada, is well known by its diverse but fascinating history! Canada fought over by the French and the British, the British won and end colonizing this one. We will write a custom essay sample on Geography and history of canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now This essay analyses the diversity of Canada’s early history of settlement related to its geography. In order to see the connection we comprehend how the aboriginal people first came to Canada by following the wildlife; then the Europeans came to Canada because the vast of natural resources; and finally allowing the French people to settle in Quebec province. This paper argues that historical settlement of Canada was transformed by its geography. Canada used to be named â€Å"Kanata†: Huron- Iroquois word for village or settlement. In order to survive, as human beings we do many things such as feed, socialize, we procreate, we follow†¦ t mostly we stay together and we fight to survive. On this paragraph I will explain in detail how Aboriginal people first settle in Canada by following the wild life: Firstly, the earth warmed up, the ice masses melted and receded; which it means: open migrations routes (corridors). Following this fact, animals were capable to cross l and bridges of the Alaska-Bering. Secondly, Aboriginal people appear in Canada’s history by spreading out into the in abi n table areas ot north-western America, everything for huge reason: FOOD! They had to acquire certain skills such as hunting, fishing, etc. n order to survive. But animals; were their ain reason of settlement so then they stay and spread across the land. To conclude I would like to point that as the climate and land conditions changed the land start to became rich and productive; natives were able to stay and that is one of the most important reasons how those first peoples are crucial for Canada’s history; they represent thousand years of culture and wherever people nowadays agree or not they are Canada’s first peoples. When two worlds meet, amazing things happen. According to my course material (2013) 1500-1791 was the time when Aboriginal people and Europeans were in contact. When Europeans first came to Canada, they ere amazed on this area because of the vast of natural resources; for example, wood/lumber that they could use in Europe so it can help with the development of their country. Firstly, Henry the VII financed an exploration to North America headed for the Italian explorer John Cabot in 1497. But it wasn’t until 1610 when the English settlement begun. As tension set between France and England in Europe, competition leaded in the Americas. Subsequently, Henry IV of France assigned Samuel de Champlain to explore the new lands in the Americas; Champlain is an important figure in Canada’s history because he opened up the St Lawrence River nd stretched French influence through the great lakes basin. As well, Champlain was involved with a group who were interested in the fur trade; the French and Aboriginal people collaborated in the vast fur trade economy. The fur trade was a trade between the French and first nation people for the exchange on items such as tool (beaver) and weapons. The short hairs of the beaver were used for making fashion hats and those were sended to Europe. In conclusion, the Fur trade had formed an important part of the early economies of both the English and French colonies and is very significant for Canada’s early history because it’s Canada’s first conomy developed because of the beaver; which is a natural resource, this one and the wood/lumber are the two greatest examples why Europeans were so interested in this land so they are part of Canada’s early history and we see the connection based on their decision after all happened deciding to settle here and so they end colonizing this country. On the early years of Jacques Cartier’s France had been building up a colony along the ST Lawrence River. Conflict between France and England had been building up since then; European confrontations spilt over into the new world and in 1629 Kirke of England ended the French colony of Port Royal. This set the stage for opposition between the English and The French not only in the America’s but also across the world. As I point in the beginning, Canada’s is the 2nd largest country in the world. So now knowing that Canada is such a big country people is required for its development so after all the British conquered the former French colonies, absorbing them into their North American territories. Nevertheless, the French settled primarily in what is today known as Quebec and Nova Scotia. Britain allowed the French to stay because they needed them to settle this country; s well, Britain supported Canada with immigrants and money. Finally, once Canada had become a country, the goal was to unify, define, and built a state. This does not mean that the French Canadian renounce their mindset as Canadian or that they torgot their traditions and heritage. French was made the 2nd official language ot government in order to maintain French political support. I would like to emphasize that having all those facts and Canada being such a big country is essentially linked to its history bringing immigrants and the Europeans settling in this country. A omparison of Canada’s history and geography; Mexico is diverse and it has 3 thousand years of history. According to world history project (2007) The Republic of Mexico is huge, comprising nearly two million square miles of coastline, desert, rain forest, mountains, and fertile plains. As Canada, Mexico is named as the 4th largest country in the western hemisphere and is rich in natural resources such as oil and natural gas. From the American borderlands of the extensive, agriculturally rich north, the country narrows gently as it sweeps south and east. As well as Canada, is bordered by the United States. In Canada’s history we understand in some point the need of people while in Mexico there is a City (Mexico City) that is considered one of the most populous cities in the world. The population in Mexico is around 120. 8 million peoples. Although Mexico and Canada are very different countries, they have somehow things in common such as history of colonization. Canada was colonized by the British in the other hand, Mexico was colonized by Spain. Both, British and Spain were amazed by Canada’s and Mexico’s landscape, their beauty and its natural resources. Finally, Canada and Mexico are two greatest countries and somehow their istory and wealth on natural resources motivated other countries such as Britain and Spain to gain interest on them and that’s how their history is similar. In conclusion, Canada is a land of diversity, creativity and liberal attitudes. The Canadian people are a mosaic of ethnicities; it means that as well it’s formed by other nationalities which together they form a great home. We understand the connection by first, historical settlement of aboriginal people in Canada by following wildlife. Secondly, Europeans came and settle because of Canada’s vast of natural resources nvolving the fur trade as a firs economy developed and finally, settlement of French people over Quebec province because of Canada’s size and need of people. To conclude I would like to quote something that Lorraine Monk an editor of â€Å"Canada the Things We Hold Dear†: An Album of Photographic Memories (1999) said: â€Å"The search for Canada is a personal Journey. The search for a national identity is a Journey without an end. It began a long, long time ago. It will continue into the far distant future. How to cite Geography and history of canada, Papers

Brand Personalities Packaging and Marketing

Question: Discuss about theBrand Personalities for Packaging and Marketing. Answer: Introduction Brand personality is a way of differentiating a brand by assigning human personality traits to it.The character represents brand behaviour through the persons representing the brand, through packaging, marketing, advertising and so forth.Alternatively, brand personality is only described as the personification of a particular brand giving it a distinct meaning enabling it to stand out from the others.Furthermore, brand personality develops as a result of the consumer's experience with it.It is durable and unique.Brand personality manipulates emotions of the customers it generates its emotional aspect and association in the minds of its consumer bringing some connection where it influences their opinion of that particular brand.Additionally, it brings out the brand attitude that which controls the perception of the users towards it which helps a lot in measuring their knowledge and how they feel about that particular brand.Also, brand personality includes not only characteristics but also the demographic features ranging from age, gender, or class, and psychological features.In this case, we are going to major in the brand personality of athletic shoes specifically the Adidas, Nike and Reebok as mentioned from the five correspondences from an interview conducted (Inc et al., 2016). Interview Results I managed to interview five consumers on their perception of the specific sports shoe brands and what considerations they make before making the decision in purchasing a particular brand.In this case, we tabled the three types of brands including Nike, Addidas and Reebok basing on their association with those specific brands and how they feel about them.However, some did not consider the name and showed generality in making a random decision in purchasing any shoe brand regardless of its personality. Adidas Consumers Adidas is clearly associated with soccer which is a well-embraced game worldwide.It is clear that Adidas has a stronger connection to football than to any other sports and with this you will find most of the consumers especially the football lovers would prefer Adidas since it associates with them in terms of soccer they would want to show loyalty to the Adidas as their way to express how they feel about football. The Adidas strategic design where it is involved with European(German) heritage which has an amicable association with football resulting in the brand to the positive aspect of quality and European history which is certainly very convincing to the consumers. The show design comprising no.7 with the word stripes is a suggestive physical feature that Adidas has the capability to strengthen the role their lines play in brand communication to increase their optical property a personality that brings about outstanding quality in the minds of the consumers. The most interesting a ssociation with the Adidas brand flows from the fountain of cold where it associates with rappers, for example, Run DMC who wore Adidas shoe and their track Adidas making it attractive for those who love the celebrity and would surely love to be associated with them by sharing a common brand of shoes. In this context, Adidas gains the superior personality borrowed from the celebrities involved with it (Films on Demand Films Media Group, 2007). Additionally, Adidas has worked so actively with the exploration of the upgrading technology to create fresh brand experiences which paint it as trendy and cool in the minds of the consumers making it a favourite brand among the consumers and they quickly purchase it. Furthermore, the brand personality of Adidas shoe is determined by fit, fashion, connect, function and it varies among different users however Adidas continues to develop its brands to suit the consumers preference for other brands making it a well convincing brand quality in th e minds of the consumers (Barron Basson, 2010). Nike Consumers Nike brand has two strongest brand association which include swoosh and just do it' which portray a unique property distinguishing it from the other brands.The design of this particular shoe like is communicative following the use of just do it' slogan which is persuasive e and mobilising a very convincing character on its part. This is the right brand for the go-getters and those who possess the daring nature seem to feel associated with the Nike brand. This brand design portrays a determinant character hence winning the trust of its consumers, and they can make the decision in purchasing this brand.The tick symbol conceived in the shoe bring a general meaning of the word right which boosts the attitude of the consumers enhancing a real perception towards the brand manipulating their decision in purchasing Nike sports shoes.Nike has a clear association with Michael Jordan increasing its athlete standards making it sensible as a sports shoe in the minds of the consumers.It ploughs wi th the highest profile athletes on the planet making it a brand to want to be associated with for the sports lovers since it portrays a winners trait.Additionally, the Nike brand is seen as a worldwide global brand without a clear connection to any particular country hence no limitations according to race and originality bringing a sense of identity to the consumers and they feel a simple connection with this brand.Nike has strived to develop its brand and makes it trendy which is a good character for the fashion lover (Inc et al., 2016). Reebok Consumers Reebok brand portrays a more sympathetic and empathetic trait towards individuals. It is a brand that is associated with the unique point of view towards different individuals celebrating the distinct quality that makes people who they are.It possesses a much friendlier and encouraging character which is a certain trait that can lead to acceptance and loyalty.This brand points out individuals at a different pint of view where it celebrates their individuality ranging from style, accomplishments to their remarkable talents.It directs their path to greatness, and this will evidently shape up the consumer's mind to the happy thoughts if associated with the Reebok shoe brands (Rakocevic, 2013). Reebok associated with Fun where it states that Staying in Shape comes to life through fun, bold, provocative manner expressed through fresh, eye-catching imagery signed off with a unique 'Reward.' The tone and style allows the consumer to look at sport and lifestyle through their lens of 'Ree.'Th is is a very convincing trait for those who take sports as fun and would purchase the Reebok sport shoes maybe as a reminder of fun while in sports or even to communicate a message for those who understand the meaning of fun according to the Reebok context. . For two decades, Human Rights, through the Reebok Human Rights program, was the primary focus of this effort. Reebok has expanded on what had been built and created a Global Corporate Citizenship platform with a purpose for the brand that will help underprivileged, underserved youth around the world fulfil their potential and live healthy, active lives this portrays a kind personality by the Reebok which is surely heart winning mobilising the consumers in showing some appreciation to the Reebok brand by purchasing it (Barron Basson, 2010). Brandless Consumers This is the consumers that dont consider the brand personality of the sports shoes they intend to purchase. According to their views, most of them are lured mostly on what the eyes can see not basing on the emotional part of the brand.They tend to purchase any brand as long as it looks good to their eyes. Alternatively, they buy the shoe based on its cost and its affordability regardless of its brand personality.Others make the arbitrary decisions for the purpose of the shoe, and they argue that all those brands are sports shoes and they purchase it on a general basis.Furthermore, most consumers have very few information concerning the different brand's personality of the sports shoes due to either poor marketing or poor research. Hence they lack the grounds to choose from leading them to making an arbitrary decision in purchasing the sports shoes (Rakocevic, 2013). Target Markets Adidas and Reebok Adidas primarily focuses sportspersons especially athletes as well as non-athletes who are inspired by games. The company provides footwear of all categories suitable for all sports and other interested parties. The company's strongest markets are in the age brackets of 20-29 years old of age. Competitively, the company aims to expand its market to athletes in the 14-19 years age group (Frisch, 2004). Adidas believes this target group is the most influent consumer group around the globe. Adidas uses segments based on demographics, psychographic and behavioural factors as a marketing strategy. The Company has four brands which are Reebok, Adidas, Rockport, and Taylor meant for different customer segments. The majority of Adidas customers hail from upper class or wealthy clients who are passionate about fitness or sports. The company use the distinctive brand image of their prospective consumers by emphasising on the value quality (Barron Basson, 2010). Nike Nike's target audience is athletes. To enhance its viability within the shoe industry, the company bases on diversification of its brands to reach distinct audiences. Strategically, Nike sells other sports related products such as sports equipment and clothes. Majorly, the company targets premium customers. The Jordan Brand focuses more broadly athletes. The Hurley International LLC brand also aims athletes but focuses more on young people, such as skateboarding and surfing. The Nike Golf brand is focused on golfers (Barron Basson, 2010). Sample Advertisement for Nike Advertisement Channel Taking into consideration the target audience, I would prefer using a sports magazine with highly profiled athletics, for example, Runners World Magazine. However, a young person would be employed as a celebrity to run the message home. Ideally, this will attract the audience since it shall speculate all aspects of youthful appearance simultaneously, this would generate a positive outcome as far as marketing is concerned attracting a huge customer base (Rakocevic, 2013). Conclusion Concisely the choice of brand by most consumers is determined by the personification of those brands and what meaning they stand for and most importantly the feelings they trigger among the consumers.The Nike brand seems to portray a much daring character with its slogan just do it' which is mobilising and very influencing manipulating the consumer's decision to purchase it.The Reebok brand has proved to be human-friendly a more appealing way to the consumer's emotions and feelings creating a connection making them purchase the Reebok brand.Furthermore, the Adidas brand is associated with soccer which is a well-accepted game worldwide making the name be popular and embraced by the consumers.However, there are other users who don't consider the brand personality hence they purchase the sports shoes under global basis.Regardless all these customers are important, and the choices they make should be respected. Adidas, Nike, and Reebok shoe companies are well-known companies that trend globally as far as sports are concerned. They are major producers of both male and female footwear. The companies embrace market segmentation strategies and product differentiation to diversify their market share taking in mind all categories of clients. The major elements that are closely watched by these companies are purpose or occasion, the age brackets, lifestyle, psychographics, and behavioural factors. These items describe the company's marketing and manufacturing strategies to fit the consumers' tastes and preferences. References Barron,C., Basson,K. (2010). Shoe wearer's handbook. Falls Church, Va.?: Oddshoefinder.com. Films on Demand, Films Media Group. (2007). Sports Shoe Wars: Battle of the Giants in China. Lawrenceville, NJ: Films Media Group. Frisch,A. (2004). The story of Nike. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media. Inc, McKinsey Company, Baumgartner,T., Hatami,H., ValdiviesoU., Benioff,M. (2016). Sales Growth: 5 Proven Strategies from the World's Sales Leaders. Wiley. Rakocevic,I. (2013). Brand personality. Place of publication not identified: Grin Verlag.