Saturday, March 21, 2020
WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary describes rape as the crime of forcing another person to submit to sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. Rape is a crime in which most women cannot defend themselves. The fear of rape plagues every woman at some point or another in her life. The traumatic effects of rape vary from mild to severe, from psychological to physical. Date rape is not an unusual occurrence that only happens in isolated situations. In fact, some surveys suggest that in 84% of rape cases, the victim knew her attacker, and in 57% of rapes occurred while on dates (Warshaw 11). However, what is even more surprising than these high figures is that most occurrences of date rape go unreported. Several theories exist that try to explain this phenomenon. For example, many women may refuse to believe that their Ã¢â¬Å"friendÃ¢â¬ raped them. In fact, they could ultimately convince themselves that that horrid night never actually occurred. Moreover, there is embarrassment following the attack in which memory and emotions become mixed up. When alcohol or drugs are involved, the women may have no memory of the attack whatsoever. Even if the victim does remember the attack, they could be left with a sense that they let themselves be taken advantage of. In cases such as this, the victim may blame them self instead of the attacker. Rape is an offense that uses sex and violence that makes sex the weapon in an act of violence. The humiliation involved in either being battered by or hurting someone we care for makes it hard to tell anyone, even those closest to us. People in abusive relationships often work hard at making it seem as if nothing is wrong. They try to convince themselves and others that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s not really that bad,Ã¢â¬ or that Ã¢â¬Å"it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen all the time.Ã¢â¬ (Hicks 18) Additionally, societal perceptions dictate that a woman should know how to set limits, and that they are responsible for their own actions. Many wom... Free Essays on Rape Free Essays on Rape What is rape? Rape is defined as according to Dictionary.com as the crime of forcing another person to submit sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. In all of the selected readings, one specific rape case was discussed as well as the significant changes that occurred with marriage. Harry Bedlow was a man from New York City who was brought up on rape charges by a woman named Lannah Sawyer in October of 1793. Bedlow met Sawyer on her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s stoop one summer night and invited her for walk and in those days if you hung with an older man it usually meant you were to have sexual relations with him. As they continued to walk around New York they came across an alley where Bedlow brought Sawyer down to. He invited her into the home of a Mrs. Cary where he allegedly raped her in one of Mrs. CaryÃ¢â¬â¢s bedrooms. However, the defense argued against that allegation and said that Sawyer was seduced by Bedlow and that the sex they had was consensual. As a result of the defenseÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, the juryÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict was not guilty in favor of Mr. Bedlow. Marriage had always been very traditional where a man and a woman were set up by each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and they were to wed when the time was right. However, there was a change in the 1730s when Ã¢â¬Å"selection of your mate was based on personal taste and emotions rather than practical and familiar concerns,Ã¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Emilo and Freedman, pg 43). DÃ¢â¬â¢Emilo and Freedman then say Ã¢â¬Å"Sons and Daughters not only chose mates with less attention to property and family considerations, but some young people even disregarded parental opinion all together,Ã¢â¬ (pg 43). Many of these couples also had premarital pregnancy so they would have no other choice but to marry each other without the disapproval of their parents. Even today this still occurs where men and women are choosing who they want to spend the rest of their life with. However, the premarital pregnancy is not common today with couple be... Free Essays on Rape WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary describes rape as the crime of forcing another person to submit to sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. Rape is a crime in which most women cannot defend themselves. The fear of rape plagues every woman at some point or another in her life. The traumatic effects of rape vary from mild to severe, from psychological to physical. Date rape is not an unusual occurrence that only happens in isolated situations. In fact, some surveys suggest that in 84% of rape cases, the victim knew her attacker, and in 57% of rapes occurred while on dates (Warshaw 11). However, what is even more surprising than these high figures is that most occurrences of date rape go unreported. Several theories exist that try to explain this phenomenon. For example, many women may refuse to believe that their Ã¢â¬Å"friendÃ¢â¬ raped them. In fact, they could ultimately convince themselves that that horrid night never actually occurred. Moreover, there is embarrassment following the attack in which memory and emotions become mixed up. When alcohol or drugs are involved, the women may have no memory of the attack whatsoever. Even if the victim does remember the attack, they could be left with a sense that they let themselves be taken advantage of. In cases such as this, the victim may blame them self instead of the attacker. Rape is an offense that uses sex and violence that makes sex the weapon in an act of violence. The humiliation involved in either being battered by or hurting someone we care for makes it hard to tell anyone, even those closest to us. People in abusive relationships often work hard at making it seem as if nothing is wrong. They try to convince themselves and others that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s not really that bad,Ã¢â¬ or that Ã¢â¬Å"it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen all the time.Ã¢â¬ (Hicks 18) Additionally, societal perceptions dictate that a woman should know how to set limits, and that they are responsible for their own actions. Many wom...
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Biography of Gabriel Garcia Moreno - Gabriel Garcia Moreno Profile Gabriel Garcia Moreno, President of Ecuador 1860-1865, 1869-1875: Gabriel GarcÃ a Moreno (1821-1875) was an Ecuadorian lawyer and politician who served as President of Ecuador from 1860 to 1865 and again from 1869 to 1875. In between, he ruled through puppet administrations. He was a staunch conservative and Catholic who believed that Ecuador would only prosper when it had strong and direct ties to the Vatican. He was assassinated in Quito during his second term. Early Life of Gabriel Garcia Moreno: GarcÃ a was born in Guayaquil but moved to Quito at a young age, studying law and theology at QuitoÃ¢â¬â¢s Central University. By the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s he was making a name for himself as an intelligent, eloquent conservative who railed against the liberalism that was sweeping South America. He almost entered the priesthood, but was talked out of it by his friends. He took a trip to Europe in the late 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s, which served to further convince him that Ecuador needed to resist all liberal ideas in order to prosper. He returned to Ecuador in 1850 and attacked the ruling liberals with more invective than ever. Early Political Career: By then, he was a well known speaker and writer for the conservative cause. He was exiled to Europe, but returned and was elected Mayor of Quito and appointed Rector of the Central University. He also served in the senate, where he became the leading conservative in the nation. In 1860, with the help of Independence veteran Juan JosÃ © Flores, GarcÃ a Moreno seized the presidency. This was ironic, as he had been a supporter of FloresÃ¢â¬â¢ political enemy Vicente Rocafuerte. GarcÃ a Moreno quickly pushed through a new constitution in 1861 which legitimized his rule and allowed him to start working on his pro-Catholic agenda. GarcÃ a MorenoÃ¢â¬â¢s Unflagging Catholicism: GarcÃ a Moreno believed that only by establishing very close ties to the church and the Vatican would Ecuador progress. Since the collapse of the Spanish colonial system, liberal politicians in Ecuador and elsewhere in South America had severely curtailed church power, taking away land and buildings, making the state responsible for education and in some cases evicting priests. GarcÃ a Moreno set out to reverse all of it: he invited Jesuits to Ecuador, put the church in charge of all education and restored ecclesiastical courts. Naturally, the 1861 constitution declared Roman Catholicism the official state religion. A Step Too Far: Had GarcÃ a Moreno stopped with a few reforms, his legacy may have been different. His religious fervor knew no bounds, however, and he did not stop there. His goal was a near-theocratic state ruled indirectly by the Vatican. He declared that only Roman Catholics were full citizens: everyone else had their rights stripped away. In 1873, he had the congress dedicate the Republic of Ecuador to Ã¢â¬Å"The Sacred Heart of Jesus.Ã¢â¬ He convinced Congress to send state money to the Vatican. He felt that there was a direct link between civilization and Catholicism and intended to enforce that link in his home nation. Gabriel Garcia Moreno, Dictator of Ecuador: GarcÃ a Moreno was certainly a dictator, although one whose type had been unknown in Latin America before. He severely limited free speech and the press and wrote his constitutions to suit his agenda (and he ignored their restrictions when he wished). Congress was there only to approve his edicts. His staunchest critics left the country. Still, he was atypical in that he felt that he was acting for the best of his people and taking his cues from a higher power. His personal life was austere and he was a great foe of corruption. Accomplishments of President Morenos Administration: GarcÃ a MorenoÃ¢â¬â¢s many accomplishments are often overshadowed by his religious fervor. He stabilized the economy by establishing an efficient treasury, introducing a new currency and improving EcuadorÃ¢â¬â¢s international credit. Foreign investment was encouraged. He provided good, low cost education by bringing in Jesuits. He modernized agriculture and built roads, including a decent wagon track from Quito to Guayaquil. He also added universities and increased student enrollment in higher education. Foreign Affairs: GarcÃ a Moreno was famous for meddling in the affairs of neighboring nations, with the goal of bringing them back to the church just as he had done with Ecuador. He twice went to war with neighboring Colombia, where President Toms Cipriano de Mosquera had been curtailing church privileges. Both interventions ended in failure. He was outspoken in his support of Austrian transplant Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. Death and Legacy of Gabriel GarcÃ a Moreno: In spite of his accomplishments, the liberals (most of them in exile) loathed GarcÃ a Moreno with a passion. From safety in Colombia, his harshest critic, Juan Montalvo, wrote his famous tract Ã¢â¬Å"The Perpetual DictatorshipÃ¢â¬ attacking GarcÃ a Moreno. When GarcÃ a Moreno declared that he would not relinquish his office after his term expired in 1875, he began to get serious death threats. Among his enemies were the Freemasons, dedicated to ending any connection between church and state. On August 6, 1875, he was killed by a small group of assassins wielding knives, machetes and revolvers. He died near the Presidential Palace in Quito: a marker can still be seen there. Upon learning the news, Pope Pius IX ordered a mass said in his memory. GarcÃ a Moreno did not have an heir who could match his intelligence, skill and fervent conservative beliefs, and the government of Ecuador fell apart for a while as a series of short-lived dictators took charge. The people of Ecuador didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to live in a religious theocracy and in the chaotic years that followed GarcÃ a Morenos death all of his favors to the church were taken away once again. When liberal firebrand Eloy Alfaro took office in 1895, he made sure to remove any and all vestiges of GarcÃ a MorenoÃ¢â¬â¢s administration. Modern Ecuadorians consider GarcÃ a Moreno a fascinating and important historical figure. The religious man who accepted assassination as martyrdom today continues to be a popular topic for biographers and novelists: the latest literary work on his life is SÃ © que vienen a matarme (Ã¢â¬Å"I know they are coming to kill meÃ¢â¬ ) a work that is half-biography and half-fiction written by acclaimed Ecuadorian writer Alicia YaÃ ±ez Cossio. Source: Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America From the Beginnings to the Present. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Virtual groups and how they effect group communication - Research Paper Example Instead they connect through communication technologies and computers, provide an unparalleled amount of flexibility (Powell, Piccoli & Ives, 2004) and are unified only by a shared function or rationale (Lurey & Raisinghani, 2000). This paper aims to review the literature and research that focuses on the characteristics of small virtual groups in an effort to determine how virtual group interaction affects performance and to make comparisons between performance of small virtual teams and more traditional co-located small teams. Small groups usually consist of three to fifteen members (Socha, 1997) with the ideal size being five to seven (Cragan & Wright, 1999) with every member having an influence on each other and are interdependent. In other words if something occurs to or influences one member it impacts on other group members; the behavior of one group member effects both the way other group members relate to each other (relational behavior) and how they finish the task or attain their goal (task behavior) (Bertcher, 1994). According to Myers & Anderson (2008) interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of a small group and at the end of the day will influence how the group achieves its goal or task which is the initial and most important reason the group is formed. Tasks can be additive, wherein the small group members work separately on one component of a task and when all components are completed they amalgamate their endeavors to produce one ultimate outcome, or they can be conjunctive, wherein the group works together to produce the final outcome (Steiner, 1972). In the case of additive tasks the small group is not interdependent until the end when they unite their work but with conjunctive tasks they are interdependent from start to finish. Apart from the task, interdependence and size, Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that small groups contain three further features of communication which are Ã¢â¬Ënorms, identity and talkÃ¢â¬â¢ (p.9). He furth er claimed that the norms of small group behavior are the rules or regulations pertaining to members of the group, and can be social, procedural or task based, and if not upheld by a group member sanctions may be imposed on that member. Norms therefore shape small group behavior and govern the way in which group members undertake their task, interact and create their identity - the physical and psychological limits that differentiate small groups and group members. Communication is the most important feature of small groups in terms of defining their identity and consists of four different types of talk as posited by Cragan & Wright (1999) that include role talk, problem-solving talk, encounter talk and consciousness-raising talk. Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that a small group that is able to balance all four talk types will be more effective and succeed in its task, whereas a small group that places too much emphasis on one type over another or does not employ any one type may alienate some members and not accomplish their task. To summarize the characteristics of small group communication there are three major qualities Ã¢â¬â size, interdependence and task, and three minor qualities Ã¢â¬â norms, talk and identity, that influence the way in which group members interact and communicate. Research shows that much has been suggested and purported in terms of virtual communication
Monday, February 3, 2020
Change Process Theories in Downer (EDI) Limited - Research Paper Example Theories of change attempt to answer the question of how and why change occurs while theories of changing attempt to answer the question of how to generate change and guide it to a successful conclusion (Bennis, 1996). Porras and Robertson (1987, p.4) expanded this ideology to change process theory and implementation theory. Describing change process theory is simply explaining the dynamics of change. There are multiple variables that are involved in the accomplishment of planned change. The two scholars (Porras & Robertson) described implementation theory as "theory that focuses on activities change agents must undertake in effecting organizational change" (p. 4). They include strategy procedure and technique theories as examples of implementation approaches. Academic writing tends to focus more on change process theory but practitioners are focusing so much on implementation theory. Integrating the two theories has been given very minimal focus. Theory of change is very important for the strategic purpose of an organization. It will be therefore important for organizations to understand change theory for the purpose of implementing some key strategies. Van de Ven and Poole (1995) identified four basic types of change theories. They considered them as life cycle, evolution, dialectic, and teleology framework. There are motors that distinguish these types. Van de Ven and Poole suggested that most change theories can be understood within one motor or in a combination of motors.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Banker-Customer Relationship Banker Customer Relationship In the light of a massive erosion of the principle of confidentiality. In the Banker/ Customer Relationship Review Committee on Banking Services Law (1989) recommended that the government should not further extend the statutory exceptions to the duty of confidentiality, without taking full account of the consequences for the banker/ customer relationship Critically discuss how the principles of confidentiality has developed the potential aspect on banker/customer relationship. The banking service plays a major role in within modern society. It is estimated that over 90% of all adults in the UK hold a bank or building society account. Therefore the proper deliver of services by banks is of significance to the majority of UK consumers. The issue of confidentiality is an essential feature of the service. In 1989, the Treasury and the Bank of England set up the first independent review on banking services law and practice within the UK. That report is known as the Jack Report. The objectives of the report were to achieve four main objectives: i) achieve fairness and transparency of dealings ii) maintain confidence iii) promote efficiency iv) preserve the bankers duty of confidentiality. Amongst its 83 recommendations, the Report recommended that the government should not further extend the statutory exceptions to the duty of confidentiality, without taking full account of the consequences for the bank/customer relationship. This paper seeks to analyze how the principles of confidentiality have developed since 1989 in relation to the banker and consumer. History The obligations of confidentiality in relation to banking law within the UK stem from the common law. The leading case in this area was Tournier v National Provincial and Union Bank of England. The bank had released information related to the plaintiffs debt to the bank to his employers, and this subsequently led to his dismissal. The Court of Appeal confirmed that it is an implied term of the banker/customer contract that the banker has a duty of secrecy. In the circumstances of the case, it was found that the bank had breached its duty, and the court found for the plaintiff. Bankes LJ stated that confidentiality may be breached: i) Where disclosure is made under compulsion of law; ii) Where there is a duty to the public to disclose iii) Where the interests of the bank requires disclosure iv) Where the disclosure is made by the express or implied consent of the customer. The decision was more recently affirmed by the Court of Appeal in 1989 in Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale. Therefore, the primary rule in UK banking law is that all information relating to the state of a customers account, or any of his transactions with the bank, or any information relating to the customer acquired through the keeping of his account is confidential, subject to the four Tournier exceptions. Statutory Law The first exception in Tournier permits the bank to disclose confidential information under compulsion of law. This may be either at common law or statute. The Committee took the view that too many inroads had been made by legislation into banking confidentiality. At the time of the Jack Report, the following legislative exceptions existed:- Banking Acts The Banking Act 1979 was the first formal legal framework to banking regulation within the UK. Part V of the Banking Act 1987 sets out restrictions on the disclosure of information without consent. It does not extend to any information within the public domain. Exceptions are set out at Sections 83 and 84. These permit, inter alia, restricted information may be released to an auditor if that information would assist the FSA in discharging its functions. Section 7 The Bankers Books and Evidence Act 1879 This permits any party to legal proceedings to apply to the court for an order granting him permission to inspect and take copies of any entries in a bankers books, for the purposes of such proceedings. This power is discretionary, and will only be exercised with great caution. An order is only usually made against the account of the party who is involved in the litigation or, if it is in the name of some other person, the account which is really the account of the party. It will only be made against non parties in very exceptional circumstances. Further, there is an implied undertaking on discovery only to use the documents for the purposes of the action in which discovery is given. The Taxes Management Act 1970 S1 2 Various provisions under this act permit the Commissioners to decide whether or not in their opinion tax has been unlawfully evaded. Therefore, the ambit of this exception is wide. However, it is only the office holder, such as the Administrator or liquidator that may make an application to the court for an order under this provision. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 The police are entitled to obtain access to special procedure material for the purposes of criminal investigation. If an order is made relating to bank confidential information, the bank is under no obligation to resist the order, nor to inform the customer that an order is being sought. Financial Services Act 1986 S177 allows the Secretary of State to appoint inspectors to carry out investigations to establish whether or not an offence of insider dealing has been committed. The Inspectors may order any person whom they consider may be able to give information to produce any documents in his possession or control. Insolvency Act 1986 s.236(1) The court may summon any person known or suspected to be in possession of any property of the company or supposed to be indebted to the company; or any person whom the court thinks capable of giving information concerning the promotion, formation, dealings, affairs or property of the company. It can require production of any records in his possession or control relating to these issues. The provision is not limited to documents required to reconstitute the state of the companys knowledge. Criminal Justice Act 1987 By Section 2, in cases of serious or complex fraud, the Director of the Serious Fraud Office may require any person to produce specified documents that appear to the Director to relate to any matter relevant to the investigation. The Jack Report The report examined the bankers duty of confidentiality and, in particular, the exception at iii) above in the Tournier case that disclosure may be permitted where the interest of the bank requires disclosure. The committee recommended that legislation should be enacted to state that damages for breach of confidentiality should include compensation for distress, embarrassment or inconvenience, regardless of whether financial loss could be proved. The report expressed concern in particular in relation to the growing perception within some banks that they are permitted to release confidential information to other members of their group without any express consent. An additional concern related to the disclosure of confidential information to credit reference agencies. These issues were considered in Turner v Royal Bank of Scotland PLC. In that case, the bank had responded to a number of status enquiries in its standard coded terms appears to be fully committed at present). The court heard evidence that it was the standard practice of all banks not to seek customers consents. The Court of Appeal held that customers were entitled, under Tournier, to have their affairs kept confidential, and it was not for banks to privately agree otherwise. The banking code now makes clear the banks obligations in these regards. The Committee was concerned that the balance between public interest and private rights had moved too far in the direction of disclosure. It is therefore clear, in light of the Jack Report, that the third exception within Tournier should not be used other than within the narrowest of situations. The government responded cautiously to the Report, but supported the idea of a voluntary code of practice. A voluntary code was developed by the banks. Although the code is voluntary, Almost all banks subscribe to it. The March 2003 edition of the Banking Code sets out the banks obligations of confidentiality, which reflect the four exceptions within Tournier. The Code also makes clear that the third exception within Tournier is designed to protect the institutions legitimate interests, and does not extend to the transfer of information for marketing purposes unless the customer has provided specific consent to such disclosure. Developments since the Jack Report Since 1989, arguments in favour of disclosure have increased. This arises out of growing concerns related to drug trafficking and other forms of organized crimes. Concerns have escalated in the wake of 9/11 and the war on terrorism. Therefore, since the Report, the government has enacted further legislation, which create much tighter obligations on banks to disclose information relating to drug trafficking, money laundering, and terrorism, as follow. Drug Trafficking Act 1994 This provides that where a person discloses to a constable a suspicion that funds are used in connection with drug trafficking, that disclosure will not be a breach of any statutory or other legal restriction. The police are also permitted to apply to the court for an order for disclosure in appropriate circumstances. Money Laundering Regulations 2001 The new regulations add a power to the commissioners to enter and inspect money service operators premises. It also empowers the commissioners to seek a court order requiring any person in possession of specified information to allow them access to it, where there are reasonable grounds for believe that a money laundering offence has been committed. Part 3 Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 This act was passed extremely quickly in response to the terrorist attacks on 11th September 2001. The Act was intended to ensure that government departments and agencies can collect and share information required for countering the terrorist threat. The disclosure powers within Part 3 have proved controversial, particularly since those powers are not limited to anti-terrorist investigations. There is naturally a perceived danger of citizens privacy rights being breached if hitherto confidential information is disclosed to the police or intelligence agencies under this new legislation. The Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Under this Act, a crown court judge may make a disclosure order requiring any person to give tot he Director of the Assets Recovery Agency any relevant information. Under Sections 370-375, the court may also make a customer information order, which requires a bank to provide information relating to the affairs of the customer. Civil Procedure Rules Part 31 The requirements for disclosure are extended beyond the pre 1999 court rules. The court has developed powers to order discovery of information at the earliest stages of an action to assist a claimant to trace and recover property to which he claims he is wrongfully deprived. Conclusion The Jack Committee felt that too many inroads had been made by legislation into banking confidentiality, and recommended that consolidating legislation be enacted. It requested that any future exemptions should be made by reference to the new provision, and any not so made would not override the central duty of confidentiality. No such legislation was introduced. The government did not accept that there had been a massive erosion of the duty. It is submitted however that the exceptions in 1989 were extremely wide, as set out above. Exceptions existed if there was suspicion of tax evasion, any crime (under PACE), insider dealing, or fraud. Further, documents were even then disclosable without any criminal activity, in the case of an insolvent company or where civil proceedings were commenced. The government has since enacted extensive additional legislation which further undermines the obligation of confidentiality, creating a new suspicion based reporting regime. The government will argue that the further inroads are justified in the fight against terrorism, drug trafficking and other serious crime. The government must be seen to strike an appropriate balance in confidentiality laws vis a vis civil rights and public interest. The important question is whether todays consumers accept that there is justification for the diminished duty. Consumers would normally view all information within the banks possession as entirely confidential, not to be released without their explicit consent. It is submitted however that, in light of todays atmosphere of abhorrence to terrorism and crimes that may fund terrorism, such as drug trafficking and money laundering, the inroads to the duty seem palatable. Of course, the exemptions are far wider than most consumers would expect. For example, under the Bankers Books and Evidence Act, or under Part 31 of the Civil Procedure Rules, the court can require disclosure from a bank in connection with any civil court proceedings. This will not necessarily involve cases where there is any suspicion of criminal activity, and may simply relate to an alleged, ill founded claim for breach of contract. It is essential in todays society that consumers are able to maintain trust in their bank, and rely on the implicit confidentiality of the relationship. The right to privacy is of fundamental importance to most consumers This is essential particularly in commerce. It is not conducive to commercial efficiency to have information relating to trading made open to competitors. A breach of confidence to a competitor can cause immediate, irreparable and incalculable loss to a company. The courts have emphasized that there is a strong public interest in maintaining confidentiality based on the moral principles of loyalty and fair dealing. Consumers disclose information to banks on the understanding that it will remain confidential. Of course, disclosure is justified in exceptional circumstances, for example control of banking fraud, or where an individual is involved in money laundering profits from terrorism or drug trafficking. However, it is submitted that the current extent of the statutory exceptions go far beyond this. Bibliography Banking Litigation Warne Elliot, Sweet Maxwell 1999 Encyclopedia of Banking Law, Cresswell and others Butterworths 2004 Halsburys Laws of England, volume 3(1), 4th Edition Halsburys Laws of England 2001 Annual Abridgement (Paragraph 278) Modern Banking law Ellinger, Limnicka Hooley, 3rd Edition Oxford 2002 The Law Relating to Domestic Banking Pen Shea, 2nd Edition Sweet Maxwell Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 Banking Code March 2003 Data Protection Act 1988 Drug Trafficking Act 1994 Evidence (Proceedings in other jurisdictions) Act 1975 Insolvency Act 1986 Money Laundering Regulations 2001 SI 2001/3641 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1988 Taxes Management Act 1970 Bhinji v Chatwani (No 3)  4 All ER 913 British Commonwealth Holdings plc (joint administrators) v Spicer Oppenheim (a firm)  AC 426 Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale  1 WLR 1341 Peterson v Idaho First National Bank 83 Idaho 578 Tournier v National Provincial and Union Bank of England  1 KB 461 CA Turner v Royal Bank of Scotland PLC (1999) CA (Civ Div) 24.3.99) Banking Services: Law and Practice Report by the Review Committee Professor Robert Jack CM 622 1989 Cracking the codes for bank customers Banking services Consumer code review group, May 2001. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media Court Rules on Duty of Confidentiality Lovells International Law Office www.internationallawoffice.com
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Project Shakti case questions With the advantages and benefits HLL attained from the market strategy in competing with the other FMCG companies in urban area while facing the intense situations of shrinking market shares brought by its rivals emulating the market strategy, HLL experienced a hard time of scaling up its attractiveness in products. After gaining the temporary increased sales, the competitors in rural marketing aggregate again. Increasing numbers of companies, heating up competition force HLL to struggle a way to explore a new less competitive market and extend its sales.Project Shakti initiates under such sharp condition. It weighs the special situation in rural India. Scattered villages and poor transportation stumbling HLL products being reached by its customers; low accessibility and educational level are the results of less consciousness of products and brands. The demands in rural area are limited. Project Shakti is generated to justify the disadvantages. It has tw o objectives when it was born. One relates to business that is to extend HLLÃ¢â¬â¢s reach into the untapped markets and improve its brands and products awareness among customers in that area.The other involves social factors, which is aiming at creating a sustainable livelihood opportunities for underprivileged rural women. That means women will be involved in operating their own enterprises by themselves. Moreover, this project builds up a bridge of communications among women and entrepreneurship, brands and customers, technology from urban to rural, backward lifestyle and modern lifestyle, short-term economic growth and long-term sustainable strategy.For the sake of business growth, forming small groups (Self-helped Group) and select one to invest in business is easy to manage, organize and operate, which is also profitable and no need to take too much risks. It targets the segment of rural women because it can easily access to potential customers since women are the mainstream of household purchasing. By directly selling the products, customers know about the brand including the attributes, reputations of consuming, service; seller (female operator) will be able to attain more profits aside from cheaper supply.Besides, female customers also have the opportunities to understand how does the project work, which might encourage them to join in. HLL decides to introduce the RSP system to coach women how to create and grow viable business is a creative action of sustaining both the business and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s belief and confidence. This approach actually provides a platform of specifically doing a marketing research, knowing about customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences, purchasing ability, potential sales, market size, helping to explore new market and segment.Utilizing the project as a communication program. This move no longer need to hired anyone to coach entrepreneur, instead, the entrepreneur itself initiates the communications with customers within a supported br and among rural communities. They present products through many means, passing the products information to customers at different educational levels. It is the easiest and most direct way to generate contacts between consumers and products.This strategy modifies their living styles and improves the quality of life, spreading awareness of health and hygiene practices in rural India. It also energizes the products growth in category and enlarges its market. Introducing technology brings the increasing numbers in accessibility of their products. iShakti is another efficient communication between entrepreneur and distribution, entrepreneur and outlets, entrepreneur and company, entrepreneur and customers, entrepreneur and stockiest, entrepreneurs, customers and brands, customers and products, etc.It is a window to look outside and inside due to the poor conditions of transportations in rural India. It is convenient for entrepreneur to manage products information. This creative action im proves the operating efficiency. However, the costs are too expensive and would drag iShakti away from being scalable and sustainable. Though the project Shakti has negative impact on temporary shortage of money, such in the brand supported communication programs, more costs in setting up additional technological portals, the way its social image builds and brands pread indicating that the project has a very huge potentials in gaining more market share, and grows sustainably in the long run. It is no longer a simple products they sell, but products deliver a belief, a conception and an idea that women are not a group of people who only concentrate on dealing with house chores and taking care of husband and children. The products also build an image for all rural women that they could also fulfill their dreams and completely have the ability to operate their own business.It brings confidence and belief that make them realize their value of living. The project Shakti successfully incr eases sales and enlarges its market, both financially and socially impacts lives in rural India. The profits it brings not only on the behalf of its own, but also benefits women who responsible for the entrepreneur, and customers living in rural India. It changes the way of viewing themselves and values in life.
Friday, January 10, 2020
What You Don't Know About Essay Response Samples Could Be Costing to More Than You Think The second portion of the paper is the point where the actual work begins. When it's challenging to compose an essay in 45 minutes, start with taking more time. The statement also assumes that in the event the state cleans up the river, using the river for water sports will certainly increase. For some of them you will require help, while others it is possible to write by yourself. Response essay writing is about how you opt to develop a perspective towards a specific thing and assess the scopes for more argumentative improvement. If you're thinking that you will need a person to compose my essay at the moment, you can merely rely on our honest reviews. This kind of essay must be written from the very first person perspective. A response essay is your opportunity to communicate your private viewpoint and extensive comprehension of writing. Things You Won't Like About Essay Response Sam ples and Things You Will Developing a summary and response essay can be a difficult job. Giving definitions is among the most well-known methods of writing an essay and would hence, prove to be boring. You'll have 45 minutes to finish the essay. You have 45 minutes to make your essay. You'll have 45 minutes to finish your essay. Taking a couple of minutes at the start to structure your essay can help save you valuable writing time later. Learn more about the way the essay is scored. It gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can read and comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the passage. Now you are aware of how to compose a response essay! Response essays do not need to be a sheer statement of view on a particular topic. Jazz still plays a fantastic part in the audio industry amidst the many interesting spurring out in the industry. The response must still supply the reader with a very clear and beneficial comprehension of the message in the original, while responding to it. Thoreau claims there is a false impression about the improvements in today's world. To create an output isn't that easy. There are many ways how to compose a response paper. Writing a reaction paper can be a really challenging undertaking, so many students use examples to find out more about its structure and key capabilities. By downloading a sample, you are going to learn how to write reaction paper and prevent common mistakes. There's no ideal solution about how to compose an effective essay. An excellent prep book can be absolutely the most important study tool you use, and we've got information on all the very best TOEFL prep books you should think about. When an essay question is vague, it's going to be a whole lot more difficult for the students to answer and a whole lot more difficult for the instructor to score. The Secret to Essay Response Samples The following two sections will explain the format and requirements of every one of the writing tasks along with how th ey'll be scored. Below are a couple of the very best. Have a look at their promos page to see whether there are any present offers. Response papers enable you to do something which other assignments don't. Add a few middle paragraphs, where you speak about specific points in your primary idea. To sum up, the statement isn't logical since there are a few errors in it. Therefore, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to demonstrate the method by which the argument is dependent on questionable assumptions. Your paragraphs do not connect one another's meaning along with the whole thought of your essay might be incomprehensible. The next basic approaches are going to be a guide on the best way to structure your body paragraphs. Usually, an effective response is going to be 150 to 225 words. Within the analysis, your reaction to the text also needs to be presented. If you want, highlight the critical words and phrases in the stimulus to have the ability to look at it from time to time to make sure you adhere to the topic. Lastly, the detail of real speech makes the scene pop. As a result of complex and abstract nature of the idea of belonging, an authentic sense of belonging can be seen in various circumstances for various folks. Your response needs to be organized, with a start, middle, and end.