Saturday, May 23, 2020

Police Corruption - 1032 Words

In Edwin J. Deltarres book Character and Cops he explores three hypotheses for police corruption in the United States. Some are somewhat historical, but they are still relevant to the problem of corruption today. The first hypothesis is called the society at-large theory by former Chicago Police Superintendent O. W. Wilson. Wilson was superintendent of the Chicago Police Department during the early nineteen sixties. The second hypothesis is called the structural theory. The third is called the rotten apple theory. I will provide a brief analysis of the three hypotheses in this essay and examine which one(s) is valid today. The society at-large hypothesis theory, asserts that the police, in this case the nineteen†¦show more content†¦Once they were hired, they were trained by inexperienced officers who often had less than a year on the force themselves. Once they were so called trained and on the street the new officers were not adequately supervised. These conditions lead t o a young, unqualified, under supervised force. Another factor in the failed force expansion was a disinterested senior police force that operated nearly independent to the new recruits. Many of the new officers ended up involved in criminal actions. Shortly after the department was double in size, 75 percent of criminal complaints levied against department officers originated from the new group of officers. Ten of the substandard group were charge and pled guilty to conspiracy to commit murder or drug trafficking charges. Two more were convicted of racketeering, cocaine possession or drug trafficking charges. To sum up, the Rotten-Apple theory can be attributed to poor recruiting, poor training combined with poor supervision which led to young corrupt force. While the Rotten-Apple theory can explain corruption in one department I dont believe it is a universal fit for police corruption in general. The Society At-Large theory may have been more relevant to prior generations of of ficers who may have been innocently conditioned to the freebies that they partook in, but in the modern era police officers are well versed and trained inShow MoreRelatedThe Corruption Of Police Corruption1484 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerning police officers, police corruption has become a major topic. Police officers seem to be making more questionable and unethical decisions according to the media. With these questionable actions, the idea that police officers are corrupt has been a steadily growing opinion. I will be focusing this literature review on the history of police corruption, mostly in major cities/countries; the nature of police corruption; the ethics involved in law enforcement; causes for police corruption and finallyRead MorePolice Corruption968 Words   |  4 Pageselection law violations; (13) corruption of public officials; (14) copyright violations; (15) computer crimes; (16) environmental crimes; and (17) receiving stolen property This assignment requires us to write a paper on a form of white-collar crime that we feel is the must dangerous form and why. I feel the most dangerous form of white-collar crime is police corruption, which is also defined as public corruption. Public or police corruption is defined as; Public corruption involves a breach of publicRead MorePolice Corruption969 Words   |  4 PagesPolice Corruption Second Essay for AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are justRead MorePolice corruption770 Words   |  4 Pagesdefinition of Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial gain, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is taking bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities. Another example is police officers misusing the police code of conductRead MorePolice Corruption3338 Words   |  14 PagesAnalysis of Police Corruption Police corruption is a complex phenomenon, which does not readily submit to simple analysis. It is a problem that has and will continue to affect us all, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Since its beginnings, may aspects of policing have changed; however, one aspect that has remained relatively unchanged is the existence of corruption. An examination of a local newspaper or any police-related publication on any given day will have an articleRead MorePolice Corruption9501 Words   |  39 PagesPolice Corruption: A Perspective View Into the Definition, Cause, Harm Randy Botelho BSLS Capstone, LS498-01 – Unit 9 Professor Odim December 17, 2011 Thesis Statement Corruption in law enforcement is not victimless and creates a negative perception of the United States legal system. Introduction There are few professions in the United States that are entrusted with protecting society’s safety and system of laws that have been established throughout the course of AmericanRead MorePolice Corruption2291 Words   |  10 Pagesand discretion in police work produces great potential for abuse. Police corruption has been a problem in American society since the early days of policing. An ancient natural tendency of human beings is to attempt to placate or win over those in positions of authority over them. This tendency is complicated in today’s materialistic society by greed and by the personal and financial benefit to be derived from evading law. The temptations toward illegality offered to police range from freeRead MorePolice Corruption in Russia1430 Words   |  6 PagesPolice corruption is defined as when police, in exercising or failing to exercise their authority act with primary intention of furthering private or departmental / division advantage. Police corruption is a big problem all around the world especially in Russia. The Russian citizens have always been on alert when it comes to the police because of the bad laws, failure of knowing there right as citizens, and sticking up for there themselves. Russia is 133rd country out of 176 in the corruption perceptionRead MorePolice Corruption2879 Words   |  12 PagesStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy corruption is defined as the abuse of power by a public official for private gain. Police corruption is the abuse of power by a police officer for their own personal gain. Police officers become corrupt mainly for monetary gain because most feel that police officers do not make enough money and they want to make more. Police corruption can be costly to society and it can even violate the rights of society. Police corruption can show favoritism to some and unfairnessRead More Police Corruption in America2871 Words   |  12 Pages Police Corruption in America The missions statement of police agencies usually highlight with pride the maintenance, promotion, and protection of peace, order, safety, and justified law enforcement in communities and the entire nation. Police officers are agents meant to bust crimes and get the bad guys. The police agency that the public use to lean on as the legitimate authority figure to come to the rescue however has created conflicting public perception. The misconduct of some police

Monday, May 18, 2020

Teaching At An Uncommon School - 1091 Words

Why are you interested in teaching at an Uncommon school and how have you demonstrated a commitment to urban education in the past? * Upon review of your website, I was delighted to see the success you have had in preparing students to attend college. I was also impressed with the progress you’ve made in closing the achievement gap. I wish to help you to continue to achieve amazing results and see no better way to do so than through employment with you. My commitment to urban education is evident though my educational decisions (pursued a B.A. in Mathematics and M.S.Ed in secondary education) and experience working as a math teacher at La Granja School, a math tutor at Roberts Wesleyan College and as a student teacher at La Salle School. Please describe your most challenging academic or professional experience and your response to that experience. * My most challenging professional experience was serving as a math teacher at La Granja (a rural school) in Hernandarias, Paraguay. When offered the position by Jim Luster, I was quite excited but under-confident. I had good reason to be too†¦ I was lacking education and had no formal training in instructional practices. However, math was my favorite subject and I had done very well in it. I also was strongly encouraged by my father, so I accepted the position—and I’m glad I did. I taught a group of students at various grade levels to prepare them for their secondary-level standardized tests. The particularlyShow MoreRelated Jane Eyre and Education in Nineteenth-century England Essay1565 Words   |  7 PagesCharlottes education at a school for daughters of the clergy, which she and her sisters Maria, Elizabeth and Emily left for in 1824. Jane went on to attend Miss Woolers school at Roehead from 1831 to 1832, and returned to teach there for three years in 1935, just as Jane became a teacher at Lowood. Both Charlotte and Jane became governesses. The Lowood School is an accurate representation of a Charity School in the 1820s . The bad health conditions follow the conditions of the school the Brontes wentRead MoreCommon Problems Met by Highschool Teachers in Teaching Students5527 Words   |  23 PagesCommon Problems Met by Teachers in Teaching High School Students A Research Paper Presented to The English Department Saint Louis University Laboratory High School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement in English IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher would like to thank and recognize all the persons who had helped in making this research possible and successful through their assistance, contributions, suggestions, and the like. First, my utmost gratitude to my English teacher for her guidanceRead MoreOf The United States1527 Words   |  7 PagesHonduras was under Spain’s control, education was associated with the Roman Catholic Church. The students who attended school in Honduras typically came from higher social classes. In the late 19th century Honduras was not associated with the Roman Catholic Church and became non denominational in their school systems. Catholic schools still existed, but were not present in public schools. The Sectorial Plan of Education was from 1994-1997, which was created to form a new Honduran type. They were focusedRead More Home-Schooling Essay882 Words   |  4 PagesHome-Schooling Whether or not to home-school your children is a controversial issue for thousands of parents every year. Do you want to let your children go out on their own or keep them safe at home where you can monitor their development? Many parents choose to home-school their children and there are plenty of arguments for and against this decision. When it all comes down to it the decision will be based on the socio-economic status of the family, as to whether they can affordRead MoreBook Review : Reading, Writing Religion II Essay959 Words   |  4 PagesReligion II: Teaching the Bible in Texas Public School (Updated Edition)† is Professor Mark A. Chancey, who is in the department of Religious Study in Dedman College of Humanities and Sciences at Southern Methodist University. In Dr. Mark A. Chancey’s preface, he has showed there is a phenomenon that Texas public schools tend to have a resurgence of interest in teaching Bible courses, Dr. Mark A. Chancey claims t here are some upcoming challenged on teaching the Bible in Texas public schools, such asRead MoreNathan Hale898 Words   |  4 PagesRev. Joseph Huntington, to prepare him for ministry in the Puritan church. At age 14 Hale and his brother Enoch, who was 16 at the time, entered Yale College (now Yale University) which was founded by ministers in 1701. During this time it was not uncommon for boys of this age to enter college. Yale was strict but did not revolve around studies all the time, Hale and his brother played sports. They also joined a literary and debating society called Linonia during their sophomore, which was foundedRead MoreBureau Valley s School Board882 Words   |  4 PagesBureau Valley’s school board is comprised of seven members. Each member represents a section of the district. These board members are very prominent figures in our communities; they have much of the communities support. Although popularity, may not be what is best for the students. Looking at the Bureau Valley school board mandates, they are ultimately only required to do 4 hours of training and attend a few meetings when elected (Bureau Valley 2013, 120). Unfortunately, it is 2016 and the boardRead MoreI Am A Prospective Secondary English Teacher1389 Words   |  6 PagesI am a prospective Secondary English teacher; therefore, this career equity report will be focusing on high school teachers. Before researching, I would like to write down what I already know about teachers. Compared to many other professions, the average salary is low and the number of women in the occupation is high. However, I am planning to teacher English in Japan after graduating from college; therefore, I will try to incorporate something about Japan’s English teachers as well. I would likeRead MoreOn-Line Teaching vs Traditional Teaching1302 Words   |  6 PagesTraditional Teaching vs Online Teaching Nowadays, education becomes one of the important things in human life. Most of the individual in the earth is aware to obtain the education. Besides that, every country always concern on developing the quality of the education to improve the human resources. If the quality of human resources of a country is good, indeed, the quality of that country will be good too. As the matter of fact, we cannot deny that the improvement of technology really influenceRead MoreThe Top Down Pressurers : External Imperatives799 Words   |  4 PagesCuban et al. (2001), however, found that teachers do not always have enough time to blend technologies into their teaching routine as easily as their pupils expect. In spite of the training, some teachers face certain low response/adaptability to changes. Hence, the top-down pressurers [external imperatives] must provide consistent support and guidance, sufficient time to get familiarized with the tools and positive rewards. These strategies allow finding opportunities into the digital age to make

Monday, May 11, 2020

Japan Economy - 2204 Words

I. Introduction Japans exports rate last month at the fastest annual rate in more than two years. The weaker yen also boosted the energy heavy import bill, although the rose 10 per cent from a year earlier, economists said the net effect of the yens retreat remained positive, because higher export revenues translate into higher exporter earnings and consequently more investment and workers bonuses. Japan’s stock market is heavy on exporting, The Prime Minister Abes government also hopes that the export windfall will shore up general business and consumer confidence. This is way to aim to pull Japan out of its liquidity trap and end nearly two decades of economic stagnation and deflation. This essay will discuss about background and†¦show more content†¦III. Objectives and Effects of Weaker Yen The Prime Minister Abe tried to make lower currency of Yen with two strategies. First strategy is ‘Printing Money’ and second strategy is ‘Buying Yen from other countries’. Both of strategies increase supply of JPY. [pic] Weaker Yen sounds like loss of Japan. Actually, it brings a lot of benefits to Japan. There are many effects from weaker Yen. 3.1 Growth of Export Companies Japan’s fiscal policy is demand-pull for international consumers and Cost-Push for domestic consumers. DPJ (Democratic Party of Japan) thinks that cost-push inflation will increase the cost of goods and services however, having demand-pull is more important. It means growing demand will pull the economy into stability (J. Metcalfe, May 2013). Lower value Yen is same as income for household. It means an international consumer is able to buy Japanese products in lower cost. [pic] In Figure 3.1, previous currency of Yen was Y0 and after weaker Y1, it turned as income for international consumers. Thus, aggregate demand for Japanese products. Increased exporting will activate economy of Japan and there will be Inflationary gap between Y0 and Y1. It is enough to stimulate to recover Japanese economy. The Minister Abe thought weaker Yen will bring increase of export and demand for domestic products and services and it is true. The exporting rate of JapaneseShow MoreRelatedMonetary Policy Adopted On Bubble Economy Period Of Japanese Japan1331 Words   |  6 PagesThe topic of this dissertation is to discuss the monetary policy adopted in bubble economy period of Japanese. As Japanese economics is a specific example around the world. The Japanese government adopted many effective ways to revitalize the economy with the result that its economy rose abruptly after the World war II. However, because Japan entered a liquidity trap around 1990s, and experienced a  "Lost Decade† (Hiyashi and Prescott, 2002), the government experienced many economic problems suchRead MoreEssay about Economy of Japan after tsunami1750 Words   |  7 Pagesearthquake followed by a tsunami hit Japan, the people were devastated and everyone was scrambling for their safety. The earthquake was one of the strongest on record and this caused an overwhelming tsunami that destroyed most of the nation. These events not only tore down Japan, but this natural disaster is going to greatly affect the rest of the world and the global economy. Before these events, the global economy was stable and now after these events the global economy is going to see a change for theRead MoreReligion and Economy in Medieval Europe and Japan1305 Words   |  6 PagesReligion and Economy in Medieval Europe and Japan Social Hierarchy after Urbanization Religion did not have as much of an impact on daily life and the overall development of Japan as it did Europe. For instance the maximu m of the wars were fought for wealth or power, not religion, but what it did do was influence certain features. The people in Japan stuck to their original Shinto religion when Buddhism was involuntary forced on them, but soon after they discovered Zen Buddhism; a practice that wasRead MoreJapan And Korea Economic Impact On Global Economy3169 Words   |  13 PagesINTRODUCTION Japan and Korea are two of the strongest economies of Northeast Asia and have been very important players in global economy since the start of globalization era. These two economies have major impact on global economy. Both the economies have experienced various external and internal challenges. Therefore, it is important that we look at how these economies have been performing historically, more specifically since 1980s, so that we could get an idea about who might be a more significantRead MoreJapan s World s Third Largest Economy875 Words   |  4 PagesJapan is a vital economic power not only in Asia, but the world as well. It is currently the world’s third largest economy, previously in second place, behind America and China respectively (GlobalEdge). Like many other countries within the Pacific, Japan is a part of APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation). This is a forum that â€Å"works towards a higher standard of living†¦through sustainable economic growth.â⠂¬ (APEC, GlobalEdge). Despite the fact of how comfortable/well-off Japan seems, they are currentlyRead MoreThe Rise of Western Culture and Economy in Japan After World War Ii1581 Words   |  7 PagesThe Rise of Western Culture and Economy in Japan after World War II According to some scholars, a societys culture determines its economic destiny. Before 1860, Japan had been isolated for over two centuries, and it was not until the aftermath of World War II when Japan was forced to ration food to extreme measures (Hiesinger 39), the Japanese peoples fear of become a Western sub-colony coupled with â€Å"their flexible attitude towards cultural variance (Sparke 10),† ushered them into economic andRead MoreU.s. Japan s World s Most Successful Democracies And Largest Economies885 Words   |  4 PagesJapan is one of the world’s most successful democracies and largest economies. The U.S and Japanese alliance is one of the cornerstones of modern society. Which has led to more fundamental and regional stability and prosperity for both countries. The alliance is based on shared vital interests and values. Both countries support preservation and promotion of political and economic freedoms as well as the support for of human rights. This pa per is focused on the comparison between U.S and Japan. TheRead MoreJapan Economy Analysis2491 Words   |  10 PagesCUHK International Summer School 2009 MGT 3580 Global Enterprise Management - Individual Country Analysis Assignment – Contents Page 1. Introduction – Japan in a Glance 3 2. Japan’s Current Economic Performance 3 1. GDP /Capital (PPP) and GDP growth Rate 3 2. Inflation Rate Read MoreThe Bubble Economy. The Direct Cause Of The Japanese Banking834 Words   |  4 PagesThe Bubble Economy The direct cause of the Japanese banking crisis was the collapse of the asset price bubble during the late 1980s to the early 1990s. During 1980s, sustained economic growth and low inflation rate were the main characteristics of macroeconomic environment in Japan. This condition caused the upward growth expectations of asset prices, uncontrolled credit expansion and financial deregulation. At the same period, the United States has a substantial increase in the current accountRead MoreEssay about Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)1175 Words   |  5 PagesFDI. Among those developed countries there is the case of Japan that is different; Japanese attitude towards FDI has always been, in fact, very cautious. One one hand, Japanese outward foreign investment and exports have played a fundamental role in the postwar period of economic rise; on the other hand, the accesses to the domestic market by foreign investors, the so called Inward FDI, has been very limited. (Paprzycki, Fukao, 2008). Japan is a highly industrialised country, it has a large-sized

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

King Abdul Aziz University Hospital Essay - 1557 Words

King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH) was founded by King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz in 1976. Since then, KAUH has offered the best medical services to patients free of charge by well-trained experts to serve the educational side as well as encourage and support scientific researches related to medical services and attract well-trained experts to train doctors and students in college of medicine and other colleges in the university as well as relevant governmental bodies in some of the hospital departments according to the available potentials (http://medicine.ksu.edu.sa). KAUH offers medical services in certain specialties. Therefore, it has been divided to many departments. One of the departments is Total Quality Management (TQM) department. TQM department is responsible of providing a systematic mechanism for the facility’s individuals, departments and professions to function collaboratively in their efforts toward performance improvement. It also concerns on offering educati on and training for the staff to meet the general requirements of the organization that related to quality. Additionally, TQM department seeks to integrate all organizational functions by distributing roles and responsibilities along various lines of authorities and processes (Shaikh, 2009). Bolman and Deal (2008), perceives that the organization as the families, machines, theatres and jungles. They also have devised the theories about restructuring organizations; such as, symbolic concerns, politicalShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Need for Proper Equipment and Skilled Staff in Hospitals550 Words   |  3 Pagesvarious things that I learnt was that an excellent health service depends on all departments in a hospital. In any serious hospital, there is need for proper equipment and qualified skilled staff. With this you will be assured that the patients will be diagnosed accurately and managed properly. However quality medical system does not only depend on the consultants. The work ing staff in the various hospital departments has their share of responsibility as well. Upon deep reflection I have observed a trueRead MoreSaudi Arabia’s Military: the Social Aspects of the Kingdom’s Armed Forces6871 Words   |  28 Pagescountries, the post-modern movement of the Saudi military is gaining strength. A Brief History of the Saudi Military The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 after Abd al-Aziz reconquered the Arabian Peninsula from the Ottoman Empire for the House of Saud. In the mid-Nineteenth Century, Abd al-Aziz slowly began taking control over the various tribes on the peninsula and seizing major cities that slowly came under the auspices of the House of Saud, first with Mecca, Medina, and theRead MoreThe Importance Of The Health Care System Essay2253 Words   |  10 Pageswhich implies that the life of the people was very simple and traditional. People got healthcare by traditional practices and medicines. In the first quarter of 20th century, particularly in the 1929, King Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud issued a decree establishing a Health Department. At that time, hospitals and clinics were established in urban and major cities, such as Taif, Jeddah, Medina and Makka, and the health department takes a responsibility to manage it. The Saudi government continued to develop theRead MoreComparing Health Care System And Saudi Arabia Essay2075 Words   |  9 PagesCompare Health Care System in USA and Saudi Arabia Ghada Alamoudi, alamo1ga@cmich.edu BIS 625 Research in Information Systems College of Business Administration, Department of Business Information Systems Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 USA Dr.Emil Boasson Title: Compare Health Care System in USA and Saudi Arabia Background: The rudimental strategy for development of any nation is to meet or fulfil the basic requirements of people, which are adequate food, shelter, healthRead MoreMian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif9919 Words   |  40 Pagesfrom this school in 1964 and 1965 respectively. Nawaz Sharif got admission in the Government College of Lahore. He obtained his B.A. degree after appearing in the supplementary examination. He attained his Bachelor of Law degree from the Punjab University Law College, which is also in Lahore. Business enterprise: Ittefaq Group He is a joint owner of Ittefaq Group. Ittefaq Group is one of the largest business conglomerates in Pakistan. He helped establish the Ittefaq Islamic Academy in Lahore, whereRead MoreLeadership, Negotiation, and Decision Making of Malaysis and Saudia Arabia2333 Words   |  10 Pagesnations. For example, King Abdullah had shown authoritarian leadership style in facing the internal terrorist attacks , which is an effective leadership style in emergencies and when quick and assertive decisions need to be taken. However, he has shown a transformative leadership style in the areas of economy and education. His vision for his country was described as the most constructive engagement so far. Now in Saudi Arabia there are many hospitals, schools, universities, and economic cities,Read MoreTop 40 Richest Families in Pakistan8594 Words   |  35 Pageswho know a bit more about the Hashwanis are of their strength in real estate business too. Hashwanis are involved in trading of cotton grain and steel and till the nationalization of cotton export in 1974, they were widely being dubbed as the Cotton Kings of Pakistan. Today, this group has excelled in export of rice, wheat, cotton and barley. It owns textile units, besides having invested billions in mines, minerals. hotels, insurance, batteries, tobacco, residential properties, construction, engineeringRead MoreMalcolm X : An American Muslim Minister And Human Rights Activist6464 Words   |  26 Pagesaccused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Malcolm X was an orphan in his early life. His father was killed when he was six and his mother was sent to a mental hospital when he was thirteen, leading to him living in several foster homes. In 1946, when Malcolm was 20 years old, he went to prison for larceny and breaking and entering. While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam, and after hisRead MorePublic Bank Leadership7523 Words   |  31 PagesBank of Cambodia in appreciation of his excellent achievement and significant contribution to the banking industry in Cambodia. In recognition of his contributions to society and the economy, he was conferred the Doctor of Laws (Honorary) from University of Malaya in 1989. He had served in various capacities in public service bodies in Malaysia; he was a member of the Malaysian Business Council from 1991 to 1993; a member of the National Trust Fund from 1988 to 2001; a founder member of the AdvisoryRead MoreDubais Political and Economic Development: Essay38738 Words   |  155 PagesArabia Islamist opposition is so strong that the government regularly suffers from armed terror attacks. For more information see Michael Herb, All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999) 173175; Mohammed Almezel, Bahrain Court Postpones Trial of Islamists, GuZfNews (December 7,2004); Kuwait Detains 32 Suspects Lirrked to Gun-Battles, Khaleej Times (March 10, 2005); Wlaled Al-Awadh, Most Wanted Terrorists

Geography and history of canada Free Essays

Relationship between the Geography of Canada and Its History Veronica Guerrero FarJat CDNS 101 Royal Roads University Ms. Michelle Hardy November 20, 2013 What is the relationship between Canada’s geography and its history? According to M. Hardy, (personal communication, March 27, 2012) my course material (2013) establishes that Canada is a North American country with 10 provinces and 3 territories; worldwide appointed as the 2nd largest country in the world Canada, is well known by its diverse but fascinating history! Canada fought over by the French and the British, the British won and end colonizing this one. We will write a custom essay sample on Geography and history of canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now This essay analyses the diversity of Canada’s early history of settlement related to its geography. In order to see the connection we comprehend how the aboriginal people first came to Canada by following the wildlife; then the Europeans came to Canada because the vast of natural resources; and finally allowing the French people to settle in Quebec province. This paper argues that historical settlement of Canada was transformed by its geography. Canada used to be named â€Å"Kanata†: Huron- Iroquois word for village or settlement. In order to survive, as human beings we do many things such as feed, socialize, we procreate, we follow†¦ t mostly we stay together and we fight to survive. On this paragraph I will explain in detail how Aboriginal people first settle in Canada by following the wild life: Firstly, the earth warmed up, the ice masses melted and receded; which it means: open migrations routes (corridors). Following this fact, animals were capable to cross l and bridges of the Alaska-Bering. Secondly, Aboriginal people appear in Canada’s history by spreading out into the in abi n table areas ot north-western America, everything for huge reason: FOOD! They had to acquire certain skills such as hunting, fishing, etc. n order to survive. But animals; were their ain reason of settlement so then they stay and spread across the land. To conclude I would like to point that as the climate and land conditions changed the land start to became rich and productive; natives were able to stay and that is one of the most important reasons how those first peoples are crucial for Canada’s history; they represent thousand years of culture and wherever people nowadays agree or not they are Canada’s first peoples. When two worlds meet, amazing things happen. According to my course material (2013) 1500-1791 was the time when Aboriginal people and Europeans were in contact. When Europeans first came to Canada, they ere amazed on this area because of the vast of natural resources; for example, wood/lumber that they could use in Europe so it can help with the development of their country. Firstly, Henry the VII financed an exploration to North America headed for the Italian explorer John Cabot in 1497. But it wasn’t until 1610 when the English settlement begun. As tension set between France and England in Europe, competition leaded in the Americas. Subsequently, Henry IV of France assigned Samuel de Champlain to explore the new lands in the Americas; Champlain is an important figure in Canada’s history because he opened up the St Lawrence River nd stretched French influence through the great lakes basin. As well, Champlain was involved with a group who were interested in the fur trade; the French and Aboriginal people collaborated in the vast fur trade economy. The fur trade was a trade between the French and first nation people for the exchange on items such as tool (beaver) and weapons. The short hairs of the beaver were used for making fashion hats and those were sended to Europe. In conclusion, the Fur trade had formed an important part of the early economies of both the English and French colonies and is very significant for Canada’s early history because it’s Canada’s first conomy developed because of the beaver; which is a natural resource, this one and the wood/lumber are the two greatest examples why Europeans were so interested in this land so they are part of Canada’s early history and we see the connection based on their decision after all happened deciding to settle here and so they end colonizing this country. On the early years of Jacques Cartier’s France had been building up a colony along the ST Lawrence River. Conflict between France and England had been building up since then; European confrontations spilt over into the new world and in 1629 Kirke of England ended the French colony of Port Royal. This set the stage for opposition between the English and The French not only in the America’s but also across the world. As I point in the beginning, Canada’s is the 2nd largest country in the world. So now knowing that Canada is such a big country people is required for its development so after all the British conquered the former French colonies, absorbing them into their North American territories. Nevertheless, the French settled primarily in what is today known as Quebec and Nova Scotia. Britain allowed the French to stay because they needed them to settle this country; s well, Britain supported Canada with immigrants and money. Finally, once Canada had become a country, the goal was to unify, define, and built a state. This does not mean that the French Canadian renounce their mindset as Canadian or that they torgot their traditions and heritage. French was made the 2nd official language ot government in order to maintain French political support. I would like to emphasize that having all those facts and Canada being such a big country is essentially linked to its history bringing immigrants and the Europeans settling in this country. A omparison of Canada’s history and geography; Mexico is diverse and it has 3 thousand years of history. According to world history project (2007) The Republic of Mexico is huge, comprising nearly two million square miles of coastline, desert, rain forest, mountains, and fertile plains. As Canada, Mexico is named as the 4th largest country in the western hemisphere and is rich in natural resources such as oil and natural gas. From the American borderlands of the extensive, agriculturally rich north, the country narrows gently as it sweeps south and east. As well as Canada, is bordered by the United States. In Canada’s history we understand in some point the need of people while in Mexico there is a City (Mexico City) that is considered one of the most populous cities in the world. The population in Mexico is around 120. 8 million peoples. Although Mexico and Canada are very different countries, they have somehow things in common such as history of colonization. Canada was colonized by the British in the other hand, Mexico was colonized by Spain. Both, British and Spain were amazed by Canada’s and Mexico’s landscape, their beauty and its natural resources. Finally, Canada and Mexico are two greatest countries and somehow their istory and wealth on natural resources motivated other countries such as Britain and Spain to gain interest on them and that’s how their history is similar. In conclusion, Canada is a land of diversity, creativity and liberal attitudes. The Canadian people are a mosaic of ethnicities; it means that as well it’s formed by other nationalities which together they form a great home. We understand the connection by first, historical settlement of aboriginal people in Canada by following wildlife. Secondly, Europeans came and settle because of Canada’s vast of natural resources nvolving the fur trade as a firs economy developed and finally, settlement of French people over Quebec province because of Canada’s size and need of people. To conclude I would like to quote something that Lorraine Monk an editor of â€Å"Canada the Things We Hold Dear†: An Album of Photographic Memories (1999) said: â€Å"The search for Canada is a personal Journey. The search for a national identity is a Journey without an end. It began a long, long time ago. It will continue into the far distant future. How to cite Geography and history of canada, Papers

Brand Personalities Packaging and Marketing

Question: Discuss about theBrand Personalities for Packaging and Marketing. Answer: Introduction Brand personality is a way of differentiating a brand by assigning human personality traits to it.The character represents brand behaviour through the persons representing the brand, through packaging, marketing, advertising and so forth.Alternatively, brand personality is only described as the personification of a particular brand giving it a distinct meaning enabling it to stand out from the others.Furthermore, brand personality develops as a result of the consumer's experience with it.It is durable and unique.Brand personality manipulates emotions of the customers it generates its emotional aspect and association in the minds of its consumer bringing some connection where it influences their opinion of that particular brand.Additionally, it brings out the brand attitude that which controls the perception of the users towards it which helps a lot in measuring their knowledge and how they feel about that particular brand.Also, brand personality includes not only characteristics but also the demographic features ranging from age, gender, or class, and psychological features.In this case, we are going to major in the brand personality of athletic shoes specifically the Adidas, Nike and Reebok as mentioned from the five correspondences from an interview conducted (Inc et al., 2016). Interview Results I managed to interview five consumers on their perception of the specific sports shoe brands and what considerations they make before making the decision in purchasing a particular brand.In this case, we tabled the three types of brands including Nike, Addidas and Reebok basing on their association with those specific brands and how they feel about them.However, some did not consider the name and showed generality in making a random decision in purchasing any shoe brand regardless of its personality. Adidas Consumers Adidas is clearly associated with soccer which is a well-embraced game worldwide.It is clear that Adidas has a stronger connection to football than to any other sports and with this you will find most of the consumers especially the football lovers would prefer Adidas since it associates with them in terms of soccer they would want to show loyalty to the Adidas as their way to express how they feel about football. The Adidas strategic design where it is involved with European(German) heritage which has an amicable association with football resulting in the brand to the positive aspect of quality and European history which is certainly very convincing to the consumers. The show design comprising no.7 with the word stripes is a suggestive physical feature that Adidas has the capability to strengthen the role their lines play in brand communication to increase their optical property a personality that brings about outstanding quality in the minds of the consumers. The most interesting a ssociation with the Adidas brand flows from the fountain of cold where it associates with rappers, for example, Run DMC who wore Adidas shoe and their track Adidas making it attractive for those who love the celebrity and would surely love to be associated with them by sharing a common brand of shoes. In this context, Adidas gains the superior personality borrowed from the celebrities involved with it (Films on Demand Films Media Group, 2007). Additionally, Adidas has worked so actively with the exploration of the upgrading technology to create fresh brand experiences which paint it as trendy and cool in the minds of the consumers making it a favourite brand among the consumers and they quickly purchase it. Furthermore, the brand personality of Adidas shoe is determined by fit, fashion, connect, function and it varies among different users however Adidas continues to develop its brands to suit the consumers preference for other brands making it a well convincing brand quality in th e minds of the consumers (Barron Basson, 2010). Nike Consumers Nike brand has two strongest brand association which include swoosh and just do it' which portray a unique property distinguishing it from the other brands.The design of this particular shoe like is communicative following the use of just do it' slogan which is persuasive e and mobilising a very convincing character on its part. This is the right brand for the go-getters and those who possess the daring nature seem to feel associated with the Nike brand. This brand design portrays a determinant character hence winning the trust of its consumers, and they can make the decision in purchasing this brand.The tick symbol conceived in the shoe bring a general meaning of the word right which boosts the attitude of the consumers enhancing a real perception towards the brand manipulating their decision in purchasing Nike sports shoes.Nike has a clear association with Michael Jordan increasing its athlete standards making it sensible as a sports shoe in the minds of the consumers.It ploughs wi th the highest profile athletes on the planet making it a brand to want to be associated with for the sports lovers since it portrays a winners trait.Additionally, the Nike brand is seen as a worldwide global brand without a clear connection to any particular country hence no limitations according to race and originality bringing a sense of identity to the consumers and they feel a simple connection with this brand.Nike has strived to develop its brand and makes it trendy which is a good character for the fashion lover (Inc et al., 2016). Reebok Consumers Reebok brand portrays a more sympathetic and empathetic trait towards individuals. It is a brand that is associated with the unique point of view towards different individuals celebrating the distinct quality that makes people who they are.It possesses a much friendlier and encouraging character which is a certain trait that can lead to acceptance and loyalty.This brand points out individuals at a different pint of view where it celebrates their individuality ranging from style, accomplishments to their remarkable talents.It directs their path to greatness, and this will evidently shape up the consumer's mind to the happy thoughts if associated with the Reebok shoe brands (Rakocevic, 2013). Reebok associated with Fun where it states that Staying in Shape comes to life through fun, bold, provocative manner expressed through fresh, eye-catching imagery signed off with a unique 'Reward.' The tone and style allows the consumer to look at sport and lifestyle through their lens of 'Ree.'Th is is a very convincing trait for those who take sports as fun and would purchase the Reebok sport shoes maybe as a reminder of fun while in sports or even to communicate a message for those who understand the meaning of fun according to the Reebok context. . For two decades, Human Rights, through the Reebok Human Rights program, was the primary focus of this effort. Reebok has expanded on what had been built and created a Global Corporate Citizenship platform with a purpose for the brand that will help underprivileged, underserved youth around the world fulfil their potential and live healthy, active lives this portrays a kind personality by the Reebok which is surely heart winning mobilising the consumers in showing some appreciation to the Reebok brand by purchasing it (Barron Basson, 2010). Brandless Consumers This is the consumers that dont consider the brand personality of the sports shoes they intend to purchase. According to their views, most of them are lured mostly on what the eyes can see not basing on the emotional part of the brand.They tend to purchase any brand as long as it looks good to their eyes. Alternatively, they buy the shoe based on its cost and its affordability regardless of its brand personality.Others make the arbitrary decisions for the purpose of the shoe, and they argue that all those brands are sports shoes and they purchase it on a general basis.Furthermore, most consumers have very few information concerning the different brand's personality of the sports shoes due to either poor marketing or poor research. Hence they lack the grounds to choose from leading them to making an arbitrary decision in purchasing the sports shoes (Rakocevic, 2013). Target Markets Adidas and Reebok Adidas primarily focuses sportspersons especially athletes as well as non-athletes who are inspired by games. The company provides footwear of all categories suitable for all sports and other interested parties. The company's strongest markets are in the age brackets of 20-29 years old of age. Competitively, the company aims to expand its market to athletes in the 14-19 years age group (Frisch, 2004). Adidas believes this target group is the most influent consumer group around the globe. Adidas uses segments based on demographics, psychographic and behavioural factors as a marketing strategy. The Company has four brands which are Reebok, Adidas, Rockport, and Taylor meant for different customer segments. The majority of Adidas customers hail from upper class or wealthy clients who are passionate about fitness or sports. The company use the distinctive brand image of their prospective consumers by emphasising on the value quality (Barron Basson, 2010). Nike Nike's target audience is athletes. To enhance its viability within the shoe industry, the company bases on diversification of its brands to reach distinct audiences. Strategically, Nike sells other sports related products such as sports equipment and clothes. Majorly, the company targets premium customers. The Jordan Brand focuses more broadly athletes. The Hurley International LLC brand also aims athletes but focuses more on young people, such as skateboarding and surfing. The Nike Golf brand is focused on golfers (Barron Basson, 2010). Sample Advertisement for Nike Advertisement Channel Taking into consideration the target audience, I would prefer using a sports magazine with highly profiled athletics, for example, Runners World Magazine. However, a young person would be employed as a celebrity to run the message home. Ideally, this will attract the audience since it shall speculate all aspects of youthful appearance simultaneously, this would generate a positive outcome as far as marketing is concerned attracting a huge customer base (Rakocevic, 2013). Conclusion Concisely the choice of brand by most consumers is determined by the personification of those brands and what meaning they stand for and most importantly the feelings they trigger among the consumers.The Nike brand seems to portray a much daring character with its slogan just do it' which is mobilising and very influencing manipulating the consumer's decision to purchase it.The Reebok brand has proved to be human-friendly a more appealing way to the consumer's emotions and feelings creating a connection making them purchase the Reebok brand.Furthermore, the Adidas brand is associated with soccer which is a well-accepted game worldwide making the name be popular and embraced by the consumers.However, there are other users who don't consider the brand personality hence they purchase the sports shoes under global basis.Regardless all these customers are important, and the choices they make should be respected. Adidas, Nike, and Reebok shoe companies are well-known companies that trend globally as far as sports are concerned. They are major producers of both male and female footwear. The companies embrace market segmentation strategies and product differentiation to diversify their market share taking in mind all categories of clients. The major elements that are closely watched by these companies are purpose or occasion, the age brackets, lifestyle, psychographics, and behavioural factors. These items describe the company's marketing and manufacturing strategies to fit the consumers' tastes and preferences. References Barron,C., Basson,K. (2010). Shoe wearer's handbook. Falls Church, Va.?: Oddshoefinder.com. Films on Demand, Films Media Group. (2007). Sports Shoe Wars: Battle of the Giants in China. Lawrenceville, NJ: Films Media Group. Frisch,A. (2004). The story of Nike. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media. Inc, McKinsey Company, Baumgartner,T., Hatami,H., ValdiviesoU., Benioff,M. (2016). Sales Growth: 5 Proven Strategies from the World's Sales Leaders. Wiley. Rakocevic,I. (2013). Brand personality. Place of publication not identified: Grin Verlag.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The government of Henry VII Essay Example

The government of Henry VII Paper This essay will be based around the Government of Henry VII and will view aspects of it. It will examine whether it was efficient, just, and whether or not it was popular with people, circulating around the idea of whether it was a success or not. Henry came to power on 22nd August 1485, after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. However this did not signify the end of the Wars of the Roses. Henry, originally born in Wales, Henry then fled to France, but came back to stake a claim in the throne.With the ideas that a financially secure King was also seen to be a strong one, money was an integral part of Henrys survival. Henry having come from Brittany had no idea of finances and the world of Kingship in England. He was also more preoccupied with securing his position upon the throne. Thus the finances suffered a due blow, the finances would have broken down altogether if the exchequer had not served its purpose as guardian of the royal finances. With this the crowns income per year fell from i? 25 000 at the end of Richard IIIs reign to i? 11 700 in Henrys first year as ruler.But Henry quickly saw that financial security was important. We will write a custom essay sample on The government of Henry VII specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The government of Henry VII specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The government of Henry VII specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Along with his mistrust with most people and through what he saw was a Yorkist loss through their entitlement of deeds and titles, making a sufficient loss in revenue. Henry avoided handing out land, financial rewards and membership of the Order of the Garter. On the one hand this had a positive effect, with the infrequent handing out of rewards this signified that you had to participate in a very good deed in order to get rewarded, so gained more value, it also gave the king extra revenue that he could use personally.He retained all of the crownlands and kept the money for himself. On the other hand the nobles became quite disgruntled with the fact that they did receive royal favours as much as they had been receiving them. Henry also made many clerics owners of Lands, taking the titles away from nobles when they had died. Therefore retaining even more revenue. When a member of nobility died, and had a young heir to his title, Henry took away the land and looked after it until the youngster was coming of age.Henry used the land to earn a profit, but when the heir had become say 19 then there would be a needed fee to pay the king in order for the l ands to be restored to that person. This was used as an act of allegiance to the King. Henry wouldnt necessarily give the land back straight away he would make sure of their loyalty by retaining their land and then once he was secure about their position would demand the fee from them. Henry VII pursued a cautious foreign policy. He only actually encountered a battle with one foreign country. This was France.However it was not to invade and take land from France it was used as a pressure point in order to restore the French pension that Britain once got, in order for not attacking or invading France. Henry however did receive funds for a war against Scotland from Parliament but he never actually encountered a battle with them. Instead of handing the money back he kept it for his chambers.Henrys government were very shrewd in cutting costs and manufacturing greater income. The council Learned of the Law had two main compatriots within its ranks Empsom and Dudley, these people were ve ry effective within the chambers, perhaps a bit too successful, they taxed the nobles for quite substantial amounts which led to the gain in money the chambers had, and it has even been said that they accounted more revenue than they actually took, working in the Kings name and aiming to please him. This led to a later outcry by the nobles under the rule of Henry VIII where they were accused of treason, and because Henry VIII wanted to stay ruler he duly obliged. Henry VII moved his rule, via Government back one day to the day before the battle of Bosworth.This was so that he could accuse all of the men that fought against him with treason and would therefore be allowed to pass an Act of Attainder against him. Henry used 140 Acts of Attainder in total during his reign. Henry also reversed the Acts of Attainder granted against himself and his uncle Jasper Tudor, granted unto them by Richard III. Henry took the action of restoring Chamber finance, revived by earlier Yorkist kings. Thi s proved to be very effective in terms of use of time and the revenue being brought in.The Chamber brought in the profits of Justice, dealt with the money received via the Crownlands, feudal dues and also received i? 10 000 from the French pension this surmounted to somewhere in the region of i? 100 000 in revenue by the 1490s Henrys financial income was based on two sorts of income. Ordinary revenue and Extraordinary revenue. Ordinary revenue consisted of money received via the Crownlands for example Acts of Attainder, escheats and relief. Customs duties and feudal dues also were gather via the chambers. Bonds and recognisances, Bonds helped keep the nobility in check.Basically Henry would receive money if any of them stepped out of line, for example the nobility were fined for holding too many guards in the house, this was called retaining. Recognisances accepted the fact that they had done wrong and set the fee for which they had to pay, this was usually smaller than the initial amount agreed with the King. Extraordinary revenue consisted of money which was received or given to the King only in special circumstances these included Parliamentary grants, for things such as wars, they also consisted of loans and benevolences and clerical taxes.During Henrys reign only seven Parliaments were called in most of these cases it was in order to submit a request for a parliamentary grant or to pass an Act of Attainder. In Henrys reign each call of Parliament only lasted for about a couple of weeks. Parliament was much the same as it is now, it was divided into two sections, the lords and the commons, however the commons had virtually no power and were onlookers in certain cases. The Parliament altogether was really used as an instrument to raise taxes for the King. Lords were made up of two sections the Lords Spiritual and Temporal.The Lords Spiritual being the clerics and the Temporal being the peers. Henry sustained local gentry as magistrates, handing out Justice within their localities. These people were part of what was known as the Justice of the Peace. The magistrates were appointed yearly and were only allowed to pass judgement on non-capital cases. In 1485 the council learned of the law were granted the means to arrest pretenders and poachers. A couple of years later they were granted the power to grant bail to those who were awaiting their trial. This also helped fill the coffers in the royal palace.They were also allowed to deal with corrupt and unjust juries. However this shows that the King did lose his grip over control of Law and Order and rarely dispensed the Justice himself, apart from Capital charges such as treason. The only threat that was available to royals was to dispense with them from their office, which would not be such a great loss compared to imprisonment. Unlike previous Kings Henry approved of effort rather than noble blood. And rewarded those who served him well. His office contained many who did not come from th e old nobility and proved to be very valuable to him, his office and financial stability.Henry had subdivided councils which advised him on matters of state, to help him administer law and order and for general information about the ambassadors. Henry reinstated what he thought as useful additions suggested and used by the Yorkist predecessors. One such arrangement was the Court of Requests used by Richard III, for people that could not afford a representative min court and would be dealt justly. Another thing that was introduced by Richard III were area councils. The effectiveness of these councils was recognised by Henry and again restored to their full capacity, opening area for improvement in personal improvement.Wales was a great supporter of Henry and remained loyal to his cause, as in his earlier years Henry had grown up in Wales before having to flee to France. Therefore Wales was peacefully ruled over by Arthur, Prince of Wales and the Marches mostly made up of independent lords, local to that region. The Earl of Surrey, Son of the Earl of Norfolk, who fought alongside Richard III at the battle of Bosworth, headed the council of the North, this seemed a safe choice as the Earl of Surrey had no land, power or support up in the North and so could be trusted to rule justly.Henrys Policies were based around that he trusted no-one, he wanted to secure his aim in keeping the throne, he used Bonds and recognisances in order to keep people loyal to himself, even his own mother and also used Parliament, back dating his reign by one day in order to get rid of the power his main rivals had against him. He knew that as he had not enough experience of being in the position that he was in, he needed to take everything seriously and to handle issues properly. Otherwise his reign would be short-lived and he would once again have to flee.But by no means at all was he anti-nobility, he just wanted to make sure that no-one had too much power, that people would appreciat e what he gave them and that most importantly he consolidated his power so that his family would be on the throne for many years to come, of which they were. With trusting main men in order to govern over the country had its perks. After the death of his councillors, Henry did not establish a new one to take them over, instead he relieved them of their lands and duties and started to concentrate the councils around himself. Combining these councils actually improved efficiency.Although Henry took control by the reigns and established his authority over England and Wales one area was never really within his grasp, Ireland. Although he only gained a small part of Ireland, he never could realistically gain control of the whole of Ireland. The area that he ruled was known as The Pale this was a strip of land that was 50 miles west of Dublin. Officially in Ireland Henry was known as the Lord of Ireland, but could not govern it himself, so administered a lord lieutenant in order to take c are of the business, however the Lord of Kildare really held the power, he was the lieutenants Deputy.Lord Kildare Supported Perkin Warbeck, who was a pretender, impersonating one of Edwards sons in the Tower of London. The money granted by the Parliament for the war against Scotland as used in order to tame these threats of impersonation and the rebellion down in Cornwall. Henry tried to practise English law within Ireland but proved to of more expense than gain, the long distance proving too far to breach. Therefore Kildare was reinstated and the main power again lay with the Anglo-Irish Chieftains in Ireland.For the period that the government was in Henrys government proved to be very efficient increasing by far the amount of incoming revenue, this is proved as Henry died solvent. It is also proved to be in some circumstances too effective as Dudley and Empsom found out, with their lives, in honouring the King and make his finances seem more with fraud, his successor Henry VIII t hen executed them from an outcry from the Nobles. Henry did not make the mistake of granting too much power to any one noble, distributed power evenly and cautiously with great effectiveness, thus securing his power.His government and administration can also be seen as a success as he was able to hand his crown down to his son and heir Henry VIII. This had not been done for quite some time and shows that Henry VII had finally placed some kind of stableness in the country of England. Henrys basic aims were to secure power, in which he did and achieve financial stability, which he also achieved. However I do no think that he intended of creating the start of a New monarchy in the respects of changing things for the future. He just changed things to benefit himself and his government.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Free Essays on Rape

Webster’s Dictionary describes rape as the crime of forcing another person to submit to sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. Rape is a crime in which most women cannot defend themselves. The fear of rape plagues every woman at some point or another in her life. The traumatic effects of rape vary from mild to severe, from psychological to physical. Date rape is not an unusual occurrence that only happens in isolated situations. In fact, some surveys suggest that in 84% of rape cases, the victim knew her attacker, and in 57% of rapes occurred while on dates (Warshaw 11). However, what is even more surprising than these high figures is that most occurrences of date rape go unreported. Several theories exist that try to explain this phenomenon. For example, many women may refuse to believe that their â€Å"friend† raped them. In fact, they could ultimately convince themselves that that horrid night never actually occurred. Moreover, there is embarrassment following the attack in which memory and emotions become mixed up. When alcohol or drugs are involved, the women may have no memory of the attack whatsoever. Even if the victim does remember the attack, they could be left with a sense that they let themselves be taken advantage of. In cases such as this, the victim may blame them self instead of the attacker. Rape is an offense that uses sex and violence that makes sex the weapon in an act of violence. The humiliation involved in either being battered by or hurting someone we care for makes it hard to tell anyone, even those closest to us. People in abusive relationships often work hard at making it seem as if nothing is wrong. They try to convince themselves and others that â€Å"it’s not really that bad,† or that â€Å"it doesn’t happen all the time.† (Hicks 18) Additionally, societal perceptions dictate that a woman should know how to set limits, and that they are responsible for their own actions. Many wom... Free Essays on Rape Free Essays on Rape What is rape? Rape is defined as according to Dictionary.com as the crime of forcing another person to submit sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. In all of the selected readings, one specific rape case was discussed as well as the significant changes that occurred with marriage. Harry Bedlow was a man from New York City who was brought up on rape charges by a woman named Lannah Sawyer in October of 1793. Bedlow met Sawyer on her father’s stoop one summer night and invited her for walk and in those days if you hung with an older man it usually meant you were to have sexual relations with him. As they continued to walk around New York they came across an alley where Bedlow brought Sawyer down to. He invited her into the home of a Mrs. Cary where he allegedly raped her in one of Mrs. Cary’s bedrooms. However, the defense argued against that allegation and said that Sawyer was seduced by Bedlow and that the sex they had was consensual. As a result of the defense’s argument, the jury’s verdict was not guilty in favor of Mr. Bedlow. Marriage had always been very traditional where a man and a woman were set up by each other’s parents and they were to wed when the time was right. However, there was a change in the 1730s when â€Å"selection of your mate was based on personal taste and emotions rather than practical and familiar concerns,† (D’Emilo and Freedman, pg 43). D’Emilo and Freedman then say â€Å"Sons and Daughters not only chose mates with less attention to property and family considerations, but some young people even disregarded parental opinion all together,† (pg 43). Many of these couples also had premarital pregnancy so they would have no other choice but to marry each other without the disapproval of their parents. Even today this still occurs where men and women are choosing who they want to spend the rest of their life with. However, the premarital pregnancy is not common today with couple be... Free Essays on Rape Webster’s Dictionary describes rape as the crime of forcing another person to submit to sex acts, especially sexual intercourse. Rape is a crime in which most women cannot defend themselves. The fear of rape plagues every woman at some point or another in her life. The traumatic effects of rape vary from mild to severe, from psychological to physical. Date rape is not an unusual occurrence that only happens in isolated situations. In fact, some surveys suggest that in 84% of rape cases, the victim knew her attacker, and in 57% of rapes occurred while on dates (Warshaw 11). However, what is even more surprising than these high figures is that most occurrences of date rape go unreported. Several theories exist that try to explain this phenomenon. For example, many women may refuse to believe that their â€Å"friend† raped them. In fact, they could ultimately convince themselves that that horrid night never actually occurred. Moreover, there is embarrassment following the attack in which memory and emotions become mixed up. When alcohol or drugs are involved, the women may have no memory of the attack whatsoever. Even if the victim does remember the attack, they could be left with a sense that they let themselves be taken advantage of. In cases such as this, the victim may blame them self instead of the attacker. Rape is an offense that uses sex and violence that makes sex the weapon in an act of violence. The humiliation involved in either being battered by or hurting someone we care for makes it hard to tell anyone, even those closest to us. People in abusive relationships often work hard at making it seem as if nothing is wrong. They try to convince themselves and others that â€Å"it’s not really that bad,† or that â€Å"it doesn’t happen all the time.† (Hicks 18) Additionally, societal perceptions dictate that a woman should know how to set limits, and that they are responsible for their own actions. Many wom...

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Biography of Gabriel Garcia Moreno - Gabriel Garcia Moreno Profile

Biography of Gabriel Garcia Moreno - Gabriel Garcia Moreno Profile Gabriel Garcia Moreno, President of Ecuador 1860-1865, 1869-1875: Gabriel Garcà ­a Moreno (1821-1875) was an Ecuadorian lawyer and politician who served as President of Ecuador from 1860 to 1865 and again from 1869 to 1875. In between, he ruled through puppet administrations. He was a staunch conservative and Catholic who believed that Ecuador would only prosper when it had strong and direct ties to the Vatican. He was assassinated in Quito during his second term. Early Life of Gabriel Garcia Moreno: Garcà ­a was born in Guayaquil but moved to Quito at a young age, studying law and theology at Quito’s Central University. By the 1840’s he was making a name for himself as an intelligent, eloquent conservative who railed against the liberalism that was sweeping South America. He almost entered the priesthood, but was talked out of it by his friends. He took a trip to Europe in the late 1840’s, which served to further convince him that Ecuador needed to resist all liberal ideas in order to prosper. He returned to Ecuador in 1850 and attacked the ruling liberals with more invective than ever. Early Political Career: By then, he was a well known speaker and writer for the conservative cause. He was exiled to Europe, but returned and was elected Mayor of Quito and appointed Rector of the Central University. He also served in the senate, where he became the leading conservative in the nation. In 1860, with the help of Independence veteran Juan Josà © Flores, Garcà ­a Moreno seized the presidency. This was ironic, as he had been a supporter of Flores’ political enemy Vicente Rocafuerte. Garcà ­a Moreno quickly pushed through a new constitution in 1861 which legitimized his rule and allowed him to start working on his pro-Catholic agenda. Garcà ­a Moreno’s Unflagging Catholicism: Garcà ­a Moreno believed that only by establishing very close ties to the church and the Vatican would Ecuador progress. Since the collapse of the Spanish colonial system, liberal politicians in Ecuador and elsewhere in South America had severely curtailed church power, taking away land and buildings, making the state responsible for education and in some cases evicting priests. Garcà ­a Moreno set out to reverse all of it: he invited Jesuits to Ecuador, put the church in charge of all education and restored ecclesiastical courts. Naturally, the 1861 constitution declared Roman Catholicism the official state religion. A Step Too Far: Had Garcà ­a Moreno stopped with a few reforms, his legacy may have been different. His religious fervor knew no bounds, however, and he did not stop there. His goal was a near-theocratic state ruled indirectly by the Vatican. He declared that only Roman Catholics were full citizens: everyone else had their rights stripped away. In 1873, he had the congress dedicate the Republic of Ecuador to â€Å"The Sacred Heart of Jesus.† He convinced Congress to send state money to the Vatican. He felt that there was a direct link between civilization and Catholicism and intended to enforce that link in his home nation. Gabriel Garcia Moreno, Dictator of Ecuador: Garcà ­a Moreno was certainly a dictator, although one whose type had been unknown in Latin America before. He severely limited free speech and the press and wrote his constitutions to suit his agenda (and he ignored their restrictions when he wished). Congress was there only to approve his edicts. His staunchest critics left the country. Still, he was atypical in that he felt that he was acting for the best of his people and taking his cues from a higher power. His personal life was austere and he was a great foe of corruption. Accomplishments of President Morenos Administration: Garcà ­a Moreno’s many accomplishments are often overshadowed by his religious fervor. He stabilized the economy by establishing an efficient treasury, introducing a new currency and improving Ecuador’s international credit. Foreign investment was encouraged. He provided good, low cost education by bringing in Jesuits. He modernized agriculture and built roads, including a decent wagon track from Quito to Guayaquil. He also added universities and increased student enrollment in higher education. Foreign Affairs: Garcà ­a Moreno was famous for meddling in the affairs of neighboring nations, with the goal of bringing them back to the church just as he had done with Ecuador. He twice went to war with neighboring Colombia, where President Toms Cipriano de Mosquera had been curtailing church privileges. Both interventions ended in failure. He was outspoken in his support of Austrian transplant Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. Death and Legacy of Gabriel Garcà ­a Moreno: In spite of his accomplishments, the liberals (most of them in exile) loathed Garcà ­a Moreno with a passion. From safety in Colombia, his harshest critic, Juan Montalvo, wrote his famous tract â€Å"The Perpetual Dictatorship† attacking Garcà ­a Moreno. When Garcà ­a Moreno declared that he would not relinquish his office after his term expired in 1875, he began to get serious death threats. Among his enemies were the Freemasons, dedicated to ending any connection between church and state. On August 6, 1875, he was killed by a small group of assassins wielding knives, machetes and revolvers. He died near the Presidential Palace in Quito: a marker can still be seen there. Upon learning the news, Pope Pius IX ordered a mass said in his memory. Garcà ­a Moreno did not have an heir who could match his intelligence, skill and fervent conservative beliefs, and the government of Ecuador fell apart for a while as a series of short-lived dictators took charge. The people of Ecuador didn’t really want to live in a religious theocracy and in the chaotic years that followed Garcà ­a Morenos death all of his favors to the church were taken away once again. When liberal firebrand Eloy Alfaro took office in 1895, he made sure to remove any and all vestiges of Garcà ­a Moreno’s administration. Modern Ecuadorians consider Garcà ­a Moreno a fascinating and important historical figure. The religious man who accepted assassination as martyrdom today continues to be a popular topic for biographers and novelists: the latest literary work on his life is Sà © que vienen a matarme (â€Å"I know they are coming to kill me†) a work that is half-biography and half-fiction written by acclaimed Ecuadorian writer Alicia Yaà ±ez Cossio. Source: Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America From the Beginnings to the Present. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Virtual groups and how they effect group communication Research Paper

Virtual groups and how they effect group communication - Research Paper Example Instead they connect through communication technologies and computers, provide an unparalleled amount of flexibility (Powell, Piccoli & Ives, 2004) and are unified only by a shared function or rationale (Lurey & Raisinghani, 2000). This paper aims to review the literature and research that focuses on the characteristics of small virtual groups in an effort to determine how virtual group interaction affects performance and to make comparisons between performance of small virtual teams and more traditional co-located small teams. Small groups usually consist of three to fifteen members (Socha, 1997) with the ideal size being five to seven (Cragan & Wright, 1999) with every member having an influence on each other and are interdependent. In other words if something occurs to or influences one member it impacts on other group members; the behavior of one group member effects both the way other group members relate to each other (relational behavior) and how they finish the task or attain their goal (task behavior) (Bertcher, 1994). According to Myers & Anderson (2008) interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of a small group and at the end of the day will influence how the group achieves its goal or task which is the initial and most important reason the group is formed. Tasks can be additive, wherein the small group members work separately on one component of a task and when all components are completed they amalgamate their endeavors to produce one ultimate outcome, or they can be conjunctive, wherein the group works together to produce the final outcome (Steiner, 1972). In the case of additive tasks the small group is not interdependent until the end when they unite their work but with conjunctive tasks they are interdependent from start to finish. Apart from the task, interdependence and size, Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that small groups contain three further features of communication which are ‘norms, identity and talk’ (p.9). He furth er claimed that the norms of small group behavior are the rules or regulations pertaining to members of the group, and can be social, procedural or task based, and if not upheld by a group member sanctions may be imposed on that member. Norms therefore shape small group behavior and govern the way in which group members undertake their task, interact and create their identity - the physical and psychological limits that differentiate small groups and group members. Communication is the most important feature of small groups in terms of defining their identity and consists of four different types of talk as posited by Cragan & Wright (1999) that include role talk, problem-solving talk, encounter talk and consciousness-raising talk. Myers & Anderson (2008) claimed that a small group that is able to balance all four talk types will be more effective and succeed in its task, whereas a small group that places too much emphasis on one type over another or does not employ any one type may alienate some members and not accomplish their task. To summarize the characteristics of small group communication there are three major qualities – size, interdependence and task, and three minor qualities – norms, talk and identity, that influence the way in which group members interact and communicate. Research shows that much has been suggested and purported in terms of virtual communication

Monday, February 3, 2020

Change Process Theories in Downer (EDI) Limited Research Paper

Change Process Theories in Downer (EDI) Limited - Research Paper Example Theories of change attempt to answer the question of how and why change occurs while theories of changing attempt to answer the question of how to generate change and guide it to a successful conclusion (Bennis, 1996). Porras and Robertson (1987, p.4) expanded this ideology to change process theory and implementation theory. Describing change process theory is simply explaining the dynamics of change. There are multiple variables that are involved in the accomplishment of planned change. The two scholars (Porras & Robertson) described implementation theory as "theory that focuses on activities change agents must undertake in effecting organizational change" (p. 4). They include strategy procedure and technique theories as examples of implementation approaches. Academic writing tends to focus more on change process theory but practitioners are focusing so much on implementation theory. Integrating the two theories has been given very minimal focus. Theory of change is very important for the strategic purpose of an organization. It will be therefore important for organizations to understand change theory for the purpose of implementing some key strategies. Van de Ven and Poole (1995) identified four basic types of change theories. They considered them as life cycle, evolution, dialectic, and teleology framework. There are motors that distinguish these types. Van de Ven and Poole suggested that most change theories can be understood within one motor or in a combination of motors.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Banker-Customer Relationship

The Banker-Customer Relationship Banker Customer Relationship In the light of a massive erosion of the principle of confidentiality. In the Banker/ Customer Relationship Review Committee on Banking Services Law (1989) recommended that the government should not further extend the statutory exceptions to the duty of confidentiality, without taking full account of the consequences for the banker/ customer relationship Critically discuss how the principles of confidentiality has developed the potential aspect on banker/customer relationship. The banking service plays a major role in within modern society. It is estimated that over 90% of all adults in the UK hold a bank or building society account. Therefore the proper deliver of services by banks is of significance to the majority of UK consumers. The issue of confidentiality is an essential feature of the service. In 1989, the Treasury and the Bank of England set up the first independent review on banking services law and practice within the UK. That report is known as the Jack Report. The objectives of the report were to achieve four main objectives: i) achieve fairness and transparency of dealings ii) maintain confidence iii) promote efficiency iv) preserve the bankers duty of confidentiality. Amongst its 83 recommendations, the Report recommended that the government should not further extend the statutory exceptions to the duty of confidentiality, without taking full account of the consequences for the bank/customer relationship. This paper seeks to analyze how the principles of confidentiality have developed since 1989 in relation to the banker and consumer. History The obligations of confidentiality in relation to banking law within the UK stem from the common law. The leading case in this area was Tournier v National Provincial and Union Bank of England. The bank had released information related to the plaintiffs debt to the bank to his employers, and this subsequently led to his dismissal. The Court of Appeal confirmed that it is an implied term of the banker/customer contract that the banker has a duty of secrecy. In the circumstances of the case, it was found that the bank had breached its duty, and the court found for the plaintiff. Bankes LJ stated that confidentiality may be breached: i) Where disclosure is made under compulsion of law; ii) Where there is a duty to the public to disclose iii) Where the interests of the bank requires disclosure iv) Where the disclosure is made by the express or implied consent of the customer. The decision was more recently affirmed by the Court of Appeal in 1989 in Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale. Therefore, the primary rule in UK banking law is that all information relating to the state of a customers account, or any of his transactions with the bank, or any information relating to the customer acquired through the keeping of his account is confidential, subject to the four Tournier exceptions. Statutory Law The first exception in Tournier permits the bank to disclose confidential information under compulsion of law. This may be either at common law or statute. The Committee took the view that too many inroads had been made by legislation into banking confidentiality. At the time of the Jack Report, the following legislative exceptions existed:- Banking Acts The Banking Act 1979 was the first formal legal framework to banking regulation within the UK. Part V of the Banking Act 1987 sets out restrictions on the disclosure of information without consent. It does not extend to any information within the public domain. Exceptions are set out at Sections 83 and 84. These permit, inter alia, restricted information may be released to an auditor if that information would assist the FSA in discharging its functions. Section 7 The Bankers Books and Evidence Act 1879 This permits any party to legal proceedings to apply to the court for an order granting him permission to inspect and take copies of any entries in a bankers books, for the purposes of such proceedings. This power is discretionary, and will only be exercised with great caution. An order is only usually made against the account of the party who is involved in the litigation or, if it is in the name of some other person, the account which is really the account of the party. It will only be made against non parties in very exceptional circumstances. Further, there is an implied undertaking on discovery only to use the documents for the purposes of the action in which discovery is given. The Taxes Management Act 1970 S1 2 Various provisions under this act permit the Commissioners to decide whether or not in their opinion tax has been unlawfully evaded. Therefore, the ambit of this exception is wide. However, it is only the office holder, such as the Administrator or liquidator that may make an application to the court for an order under this provision. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 The police are entitled to obtain access to special procedure material for the purposes of criminal investigation. If an order is made relating to bank confidential information, the bank is under no obligation to resist the order, nor to inform the customer that an order is being sought. Financial Services Act 1986 S177 allows the Secretary of State to appoint inspectors to carry out investigations to establish whether or not an offence of insider dealing has been committed. The Inspectors may order any person whom they consider may be able to give information to produce any documents in his possession or control. Insolvency Act 1986 s.236(1) The court may summon any person known or suspected to be in possession of any property of the company or supposed to be indebted to the company; or any person whom the court thinks capable of giving information concerning the promotion, formation, dealings, affairs or property of the company. It can require production of any records in his possession or control relating to these issues. The provision is not limited to documents required to reconstitute the state of the companys knowledge. Criminal Justice Act 1987 By Section 2, in cases of serious or complex fraud, the Director of the Serious Fraud Office may require any person to produce specified documents that appear to the Director to relate to any matter relevant to the investigation. The Jack Report The report examined the bankers duty of confidentiality and, in particular, the exception at iii) above in the Tournier case that disclosure may be permitted where the interest of the bank requires disclosure. The committee recommended that legislation should be enacted to state that damages for breach of confidentiality should include compensation for distress, embarrassment or inconvenience, regardless of whether financial loss could be proved. The report expressed concern in particular in relation to the growing perception within some banks that they are permitted to release confidential information to other members of their group without any express consent. An additional concern related to the disclosure of confidential information to credit reference agencies. These issues were considered in Turner v Royal Bank of Scotland PLC. In that case, the bank had responded to a number of status enquiries in its standard coded terms appears to be fully committed at present). The court heard evidence that it was the standard practice of all banks not to seek customers consents. The Court of Appeal held that customers were entitled, under Tournier, to have their affairs kept confidential, and it was not for banks to privately agree otherwise. The banking code now makes clear the banks obligations in these regards. The Committee was concerned that the balance between public interest and private rights had moved too far in the direction of disclosure. It is therefore clear, in light of the Jack Report, that the third exception within Tournier should not be used other than within the narrowest of situations. The government responded cautiously to the Report, but supported the idea of a voluntary code of practice. A voluntary code was developed by the banks. Although the code is voluntary, Almost all banks subscribe to it. The March 2003 edition of the Banking Code sets out the banks obligations of confidentiality, which reflect the four exceptions within Tournier. The Code also makes clear that the third exception within Tournier is designed to protect the institutions legitimate interests, and does not extend to the transfer of information for marketing purposes unless the customer has provided specific consent to such disclosure. Developments since the Jack Report Since 1989, arguments in favour of disclosure have increased. This arises out of growing concerns related to drug trafficking and other forms of organized crimes. Concerns have escalated in the wake of 9/11 and the war on terrorism. Therefore, since the Report, the government has enacted further legislation, which create much tighter obligations on banks to disclose information relating to drug trafficking, money laundering, and terrorism, as follow. Drug Trafficking Act 1994 This provides that where a person discloses to a constable a suspicion that funds are used in connection with drug trafficking, that disclosure will not be a breach of any statutory or other legal restriction. The police are also permitted to apply to the court for an order for disclosure in appropriate circumstances. Money Laundering Regulations 2001 The new regulations add a power to the commissioners to enter and inspect money service operators premises. It also empowers the commissioners to seek a court order requiring any person in possession of specified information to allow them access to it, where there are reasonable grounds for believe that a money laundering offence has been committed. Part 3 Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 This act was passed extremely quickly in response to the terrorist attacks on 11th September 2001. The Act was intended to ensure that government departments and agencies can collect and share information required for countering the terrorist threat. The disclosure powers within Part 3 have proved controversial, particularly since those powers are not limited to anti-terrorist investigations. There is naturally a perceived danger of citizens privacy rights being breached if hitherto confidential information is disclosed to the police or intelligence agencies under this new legislation. The Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Under this Act, a crown court judge may make a disclosure order requiring any person to give tot he Director of the Assets Recovery Agency any relevant information. Under Sections 370-375, the court may also make a customer information order, which requires a bank to provide information relating to the affairs of the customer. Civil Procedure Rules Part 31 The requirements for disclosure are extended beyond the pre 1999 court rules. The court has developed powers to order discovery of information at the earliest stages of an action to assist a claimant to trace and recover property to which he claims he is wrongfully deprived. Conclusion The Jack Committee felt that too many inroads had been made by legislation into banking confidentiality, and recommended that consolidating legislation be enacted. It requested that any future exemptions should be made by reference to the new provision, and any not so made would not override the central duty of confidentiality. No such legislation was introduced. The government did not accept that there had been a massive erosion of the duty. It is submitted however that the exceptions in 1989 were extremely wide, as set out above. Exceptions existed if there was suspicion of tax evasion, any crime (under PACE), insider dealing, or fraud. Further, documents were even then disclosable without any criminal activity, in the case of an insolvent company or where civil proceedings were commenced. The government has since enacted extensive additional legislation which further undermines the obligation of confidentiality, creating a new suspicion based reporting regime. The government will argue that the further inroads are justified in the fight against terrorism, drug trafficking and other serious crime. The government must be seen to strike an appropriate balance in confidentiality laws vis a vis civil rights and public interest. The important question is whether todays consumers accept that there is justification for the diminished duty. Consumers would normally view all information within the banks possession as entirely confidential, not to be released without their explicit consent. It is submitted however that, in light of todays atmosphere of abhorrence to terrorism and crimes that may fund terrorism, such as drug trafficking and money laundering, the inroads to the duty seem palatable. Of course, the exemptions are far wider than most consumers would expect. For example, under the Bankers Books and Evidence Act, or under Part 31 of the Civil Procedure Rules, the court can require disclosure from a bank in connection with any civil court proceedings. This will not necessarily involve cases where there is any suspicion of criminal activity, and may simply relate to an alleged, ill founded claim for breach of contract. It is essential in todays society that consumers are able to maintain trust in their bank, and rely on the implicit confidentiality of the relationship. The right to privacy is of fundamental importance to most consumers This is essential particularly in commerce. It is not conducive to commercial efficiency to have information relating to trading made open to competitors. A breach of confidence to a competitor can cause immediate, irreparable and incalculable loss to a company. The courts have emphasized that there is a strong public interest in maintaining confidentiality based on the moral principles of loyalty and fair dealing. Consumers disclose information to banks on the understanding that it will remain confidential. Of course, disclosure is justified in exceptional circumstances, for example control of banking fraud, or where an individual is involved in money laundering profits from terrorism or drug trafficking. However, it is submitted that the current extent of the statutory exceptions go far beyond this. Bibliography Banking Litigation Warne Elliot, Sweet Maxwell 1999 Encyclopedia of Banking Law, Cresswell and others Butterworths 2004 Halsburys Laws of England, volume 3(1), 4th Edition Halsburys Laws of England 2001 Annual Abridgement (Paragraph 278) Modern Banking law Ellinger, Limnicka Hooley, 3rd Edition Oxford 2002 The Law Relating to Domestic Banking Pen Shea, 2nd Edition Sweet Maxwell Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 Banking Code March 2003 Data Protection Act 1988 Drug Trafficking Act 1994 Evidence (Proceedings in other jurisdictions) Act 1975 Insolvency Act 1986 Money Laundering Regulations 2001 SI 2001/3641 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1988 Taxes Management Act 1970 Bhinji v Chatwani (No 3) [1992] 4 All ER 913 British Commonwealth Holdings plc (joint administrators) v Spicer Oppenheim (a firm) [1993] AC 426 Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale [1989] 1 WLR 1341 Peterson v Idaho First National Bank 83 Idaho 578 Tournier v National Provincial and Union Bank of England [1924] 1 KB 461 CA Turner v Royal Bank of Scotland PLC (1999) CA (Civ Div) 24.3.99) Banking Services: Law and Practice Report by the Review Committee Professor Robert Jack CM 622 1989 Cracking the codes for bank customers Banking services Consumer code review group, May 2001. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media Court Rules on Duty of Confidentiality Lovells International Law Office www.internationallawoffice.com

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Project Shakti Case Questions

Project Shakti case questions With the advantages and benefits HLL attained from the market strategy in competing with the other FMCG companies in urban area while facing the intense situations of shrinking market shares brought by its rivals emulating the market strategy, HLL experienced a hard time of scaling up its attractiveness in products. After gaining the temporary increased sales, the competitors in rural marketing aggregate again. Increasing numbers of companies, heating up competition force HLL to struggle a way to explore a new less competitive market and extend its sales.Project Shakti initiates under such sharp condition. It weighs the special situation in rural India. Scattered villages and poor transportation stumbling HLL products being reached by its customers; low accessibility and educational level are the results of less consciousness of products and brands. The demands in rural area are limited. Project Shakti is generated to justify the disadvantages. It has tw o objectives when it was born. One relates to business that is to extend HLL’s reach into the untapped markets and improve its brands and products awareness among customers in that area.The other involves social factors, which is aiming at creating a sustainable livelihood opportunities for underprivileged rural women. That means women will be involved in operating their own enterprises by themselves. Moreover, this project builds up a bridge of communications among women and entrepreneurship, brands and customers, technology from urban to rural, backward lifestyle and modern lifestyle, short-term economic growth and long-term sustainable strategy.For the sake of business growth, forming small groups (Self-helped Group) and select one to invest in business is easy to manage, organize and operate, which is also profitable and no need to take too much risks. It targets the segment of rural women because it can easily access to potential customers since women are the mainstream of household purchasing. By directly selling the products, customers know about the brand including the attributes, reputations of consuming, service; seller (female operator) will be able to attain more profits aside from cheaper supply.Besides, female customers also have the opportunities to understand how does the project work, which might encourage them to join in. HLL decides to introduce the RSP system to coach women how to create and grow viable business is a creative action of sustaining both the business and women’s belief and confidence. This approach actually provides a platform of specifically doing a marketing research, knowing about customers’ preferences, purchasing ability, potential sales, market size, helping to explore new market and segment.Utilizing the project as a communication program. This move no longer need to hired anyone to coach entrepreneur, instead, the entrepreneur itself initiates the communications with customers within a supported br and among rural communities. They present products through many means, passing the products information to customers at different educational levels. It is the easiest and most direct way to generate contacts between consumers and products.This strategy modifies their living styles and improves the quality of life, spreading awareness of health and hygiene practices in rural India. It also energizes the products growth in category and enlarges its market. Introducing technology brings the increasing numbers in accessibility of their products. iShakti is another efficient communication between entrepreneur and distribution, entrepreneur and outlets, entrepreneur and company, entrepreneur and customers, entrepreneur and stockiest, entrepreneurs, customers and brands, customers and products, etc.It is a window to look outside and inside due to the poor conditions of transportations in rural India. It is convenient for entrepreneur to manage products information. This creative action im proves the operating efficiency. However, the costs are too expensive and would drag iShakti away from being scalable and sustainable. Though the project Shakti has negative impact on temporary shortage of money, such in the brand supported communication programs, more costs in setting up additional technological portals, the way its social image builds and brands pread indicating that the project has a very huge potentials in gaining more market share, and grows sustainably in the long run. It is no longer a simple products they sell, but products deliver a belief, a conception and an idea that women are not a group of people who only concentrate on dealing with house chores and taking care of husband and children. The products also build an image for all rural women that they could also fulfill their dreams and completely have the ability to operate their own business.It brings confidence and belief that make them realize their value of living. The project Shakti successfully incr eases sales and enlarges its market, both financially and socially impacts lives in rural India. The profits it brings not only on the behalf of its own, but also benefits women who responsible for the entrepreneur, and customers living in rural India. It changes the way of viewing themselves and values in life.